Why has the apparently high rate of cousin marriage among Bradford Pakistanis been sustained, 50 years since Pakistani migration to Britain began? A review of the anthropological literature on Pakistani migration and settlement, British Pakistani marriage patterns and the phenomenon of transnational marriage. British Pakistanis are diverse in regional origins and social class characteristics, with many Bradford Pakistanis originating from the Mirpur district and northern Punjab. British Pakistani marriages often involve a partner from Pakistan who joins a spouse in the UK. These processes are also differentially influenced by region of origin and class characteristics in Pakistan as well as by education, employment and locality in Britain. The pattern observed in Bradford may not be applicable nationally. Further research examining marital decisions over several generations in families differing by social class, region of origin in Pakistan and locality in Britain is necessary to contextualise the findings from Bradford.
Fast forward, and today she is Miss July - the first British woman in a decade to achieve the dubious honour of becoming a Playboy Playmate.
Then there is the online video readily available on the Playboy website, which shows a naked Emily writhing around on a desk and a leather armchair. Certainly, her mother also finds the Playboy snaps uncomfortable viewing. Until she was 18, Emily left, in a party dress insists she was flat-chested and sporty, with train-track braces clamped to her teeth. Pictured right, Emily at school. So how on earth did a pretty, intelligent Home Counties schoolgirl, who grew up with the world at her feet and could quite possibly have turned her hand to whatever she wanted, end up in the clutches of year-old Hugh Hefner?
Until she was 18, Emily insists she was flat-chested and sporty, with train-track braces clamped to her teeth.
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She is currently single. And until her late teens - she left Hurst Lodge at 16 to study at a sixth form college - Emily, too, had her sights set on university.
She studied for A-levels in history, politics, media and art, but despite being predicted A and B-grades, says she started socialising too much. I think my parents were a bit disappointed, but they understood. They did ask me what I was going to do next. She decided to take some time out, started working full-time at Waitrose in Sunningdale before moving on to a company which compiles databases. Above, on a music video shoot. She vividly recalls her first topless test for the agency when she was 20 years old.
I have no problem being topless or nude. Despite being pleased with the result, jobs were few and far between. There was a topless appearance in the Czech edition of Maxim magazine, as well as some work for a clothing brand for big-busted women. That way you remain in control of what you do as well and you keep all the money.
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It was a dream come true. In February this year, she was flown to America and spent a month at the Playboy Mansion, learning about the Bunny Girl brand, spending time with other Playboy Playmates and, most importantly, taking her clothes off. But what on earth did her parents think? They wanted to know I was safe and that I knew what I was doing. Hefner himself, she says, was a gentleman.
He was very polite. One shot shows Emily, naked aside from her red glossy heels, red leather gloves and spectacles, hanging from the giant Playboy sign on the outside of the office. It seems somehow ironic, given the photographs the flustered waiter and I have just seen, that she speaks with the zeal of a feminist. Indeed, asked whether other women and young girls would find Playboy liberating, she is lost for words for a few moments.
What she does next remains to be seen. She is no longer working for Waitrose, but, with the help of her father, has launched herself into the world of property development.
She hopes to return to Los Angeles later this year in the hope of breaking into film. What will her future husband think - if she ever comes to get married - of the fact that the world can see his wife naked at the click of a mouse? What will any children she might have make of it all?
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More top stories. Bing Site Web Enter search term: Search. These strategies of education and business among originally village-based families share characteristics with the long-standing internationally connected expatriate Pakistani urban middle class. This class has less need to remit money to Pakistan, and is better placed to invest in property, business and education. In such families, lives are transnational in that they are lived part of the time in Pakistan and part of the time abroad, according to need and opportunity.
For example, to take another case from my recent fieldwork, the British-born, university-educated daughter of a Karachi-based Punjabi family that is also settled in High Wycombe has recently moved with her school-age children to Karachi, where her children will be educated in English-medium schools, in order that her husband her father's brother's son can join his brother in business there.
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This woman's brother, by contrast, is currently establishing a professional career in the city of London, commuting daily from High Wycombe where he lives with his wife his father's sister's daughterwho is a graduate from Pakistan. Class and regional effects may also play a part in explaining why, in contrast to Bradford, Pakistani consanguineous marriage in Norway appears to have decreased from In a sample of 2, Norwegian Pakistani women, cousin marriage decreased most significantly in marriages of Norwegian-born Pakistani women, and was more likely to persist over time where the woman's parents were also consanguineous.
Norway's Pakistani population of 30, less than half the size of Bradford's Pakistani population, originates mainly from Kharian in the Gujrat district of Punjab. An anthropological study of Danish Pakistanis indicates some important differences between the UK and Denmark in the characteristics of their respective Pakistani populations.
Danish Pakistanis number about 25, not much more than one third of Bradford's Pakistani population and have followed strategies of competitive moneymaking and investing in business and education [ 53 ].
Among Danish-born Pakistanis, connections with non-kin based on educational or religious affiliation are now often extending into choice of marriage partner, with marriages increasingly being contracted within Denmark [ 53 ].
One unexpected consequence of this policy is that hundreds of Danish Pakistanis move to Sweden to obtain family reunification with a Pakistani spouse [ 53 ]. Besides the regional and class effects, generational differences also influence motivations for consanguineous marriage and, potentially, consanguinity rates. These in turn are not straightforward but mediated by migration history and cts of immigration policy.
In a sizeable proportion of Bradford Pakistani couples of reproductive age, both partners are Pakistan-born, as a result of delayed family reunification among Mirpuris and delayed spousal immigration. The Born in Bradford birth cohort study collected data on birthplace and age of entry to the UK of mothers and fathers of Pakistani babies; it would be instructive to examine consanguinity of couples according to these factors [ 51 ].
Within transnational British Pakistani families, marriage plans for children have become inextricably entwined with possibilities for emigration, not just as a strategy to continue labour migration despite increasingly restrictive immigration controls, but as a route to sharing with other members of the family the benefits and opportunities of life in the West, such as earning potential, education and citizenship, and expanding international opportunities and networks.
For British Pakistanis across the generations, marriage to a spouse from Pakistan is also a practical, symbolic and emotional link to the culture and religion of the homeland.
Transnational marriage is a form of social mobility for cousins chosen as spouses, marking out their households in Pakistan from those with no such overseas connection. I have also highlighted social class, region of origin, local and generational effects on the functions and meanings of cousin marriage across this transnational arena. We do not know if the recent findings from Bradford are specific to Bradford, or apply more generally to working-class families of Mirpuri origin in other areas of deprivation and high unemployment in Britain.
In cities such as Manchester and Oxford, with significant proportions of Pakistanis from other parts of north, central, rural and urban Punjab, the current prevalence of cousin marriage may be lower, even though transnational marriage may remain important.
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A comparative longitudinal study examining marital decisions and processes of family reunion over several generations in families differing by social class, regional origin and locality in Britain would be necessary to answer this question. Historical data suggest that maintaining close family networks through close-kin and first-cousin marriage is important under conditions of socio-economic insecurity, for example, in the early 19th century in Europe, where families faced high risks during the upheavals of early industrialisation [ 43 ].
In some areas at this time there were local increases in several types of close-kin marriage, including marriages of first cousins, even though by the end of the 19th century the rate of cousin marriage had declined to its present low levels [ 545556 ].
A parallel argument could be made for consanguineous marriage within minority Muslim communities in the contemporary world.
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Human Heredity.
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Hum Hered. Published online Jul Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. Karger AG, Basel. This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4. Usage, derivative works and distribution are permitted provided that proper credit is given to the author and the original publisher. Methods A review of the anthropological literature on Pakistani migration and settlement, British Pakistani marriage patterns and the phenomenon of transnational marriage.
Results British Pakistanis are diverse in regional origins and social class characteristics, with many Bradford Pakistanis originating from the Mirpur district and northern Punjab. Conclusion Further research examining marital decisions over several generations in families differing by social class, region of origin in Pakistan and locality in Britain is necessary to contextualise the findings from Bradford.
Introduction Cousin marriage is a complex phenomenon influenced by cultural preferences and by political, socioeconomic and emotional factors, the relative influence of these different factors varying across time and place. Family Reunification The pattern of labour migration changed against a backdrop of increasingly restrictive immigration controls, rising unemployment and racial tension.
Spousal Immigration Since the s, what is in effect, a new phrase of immigration began and has continued to the present day, involving the immigration of spouses from Pakistan who have married British citizens. Regional and Social Class Effects Differences exist within the British Pakistani population in the relative weight of these motivations for cousin marriages.
Many of those displaced joined relatives in Britain, and some received work permits for the UK Processes of family reunification were particularly slow among British Mirpuris, many of whom were unaccustomed to the bureaucracy of the immigration process. Discussion Class and regional effects may also play a part in explaining why, in contrast to Bradford, Pakistani consanguineous marriage in Norway appears to have decreased from References 1.
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Brit Shaw. 2, likes 1 talking about this. Official Facebook PageFollowers: K. 2, Followers, 1, Following, Posts - See Instagram photos and videos from BRIT SHAW (@britshaw_x) posts. Jul 29, As British subjects under the British Nationality Act, these men had unrestricted right of entry, return and re-entry. They took up work in the factories and mills of the Midlands and the North, returning to Pakistan after long intervals, sometimes risking .
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Who is she dating right now? According to our records, Emily Shaw is possibly single. Relationships. We have no records of past relationships for Emily Shaw. About. Emily Shaw is a 28 year old British Model (Adult/- benjamingaleschreck.com) born on 11th July, in Ascot, England. Her zodiac sign is Cancer. Feb 07, Brit Shaw is single. She is not dating anyone currently. Brit had at least 1 relationship in the past. Brit Shaw has not been previously benjamingaleschreck.comality: American. Jul 18, Emily Shaw, 23, went to ?15,a-year Hurst Lodge in Ascot, Berks, before becoming the first British woman in a decade to be a Playboy Playmate.
Marital instability among British Pakistanis: transnationality, conjugalities and Islam. Ethn Racial Stud. Muslims in the UK. In: Abbas T, editor.
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