No one knows for sure who made the first clay pipes. The idea of smoking tobacco came from the American Indian, who had long fashioned their own clay pipes. These, no doubt served as a model for later pipe development. By tobacco smoking had been introduced to Europe. There is little doubt that the earliest pipes came from England. Pictured above is a British pipe mold that dates to the early 's. It is a part of the collection of Steve Beasley, who purchased it while in England.
The "Made in Ireland" block format came in either one line or two lines. The Republic Era is from until the present. The Republic of Ireland was formed on 17 April From to present the stamp for this era is "Made in the Republic of Ireland" in a block format generally in three lines but two lines have been used with or without Republic being abbreviated.
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English made Peterson pipes actually spans between the pre-Republic and Republic eras. InPeterson opened a shop in London England that lasted until the late s or early s. So the English Era, for a simplified date, will be from through The stamps Peterson used in London and that we have seen are.
Though there are a couple of more, the above will give one the general idea. We believe the earliest stamp of this era was the "Made in England" in a block format since Peterson was using the "Made in Ireland" block format at about the same time on their Irish production pipes.
The "Made in England" circle format was used during the same time frame as the "Made in Eire" and "Made in Ireland" circle formats. As one can see this is pretty straightforward but there have been inconsistencies within this method of stamping.
The explanation for the question marks in the s dates is, during the Second World War briar was hard to come by for obvious reasons, so no one can say for sure what years Peterson produced briar pipes and how many briar pipes were produced in those years. Why the switch from "Made in Eire" to "Made in Ireland" is anyone's guess since the country was still technically Eire until As a point of interest and due to the shortage of briar, Peterson did make clay and Bog Oak pipes during the war years though they had ceased clay pipe production in the Patent Era and Bog Oak production back in the early s see below.
The "Made in Ireland" block format can be another headache in dating Peterson pipes since this stamp was used in the late Patent Era as well as the late s.
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So for a guide we must take into consideration the style of lettering Peterson used on their pipes. From the start of the Patent Era until somewhere in the early s, Peterson used the "Old Style" lettering that used a forked tail "P" in Peterson See enclosure 1.
For this reason, it is important to look at specific local typologies as well as the more general national ones. Early pipes dating from before the English Civil War of the s tend to follow London fashions but the disruption of the war appears to have allowed regional forms to develop. The habit spread quickly across the country and by the mid 17th Century the manufacture of clay pipes was a well established trade. By , when the industry reached a peak, almost every town and city in England had pipe makers. Millions were being produced not only for local use but also for benjamingaleschreck.comg: dating. A group of typical English clay pipes dating from the early Victorian period. These have very delicate thin walled bowls and often a narrow pointed spur with initials of the maker on the side. Ribs, Scallops and Leaf designs were common then often also incorporating symbolism for taverns or masonics.
From then until now, Peterson used the more familiar script "P" See Enclosure 2 intermixed with a plain block letter "P. Again, there appears to be a cross-over with the old style forked tail and the later forked tail P's. However, these commemorative pipes generally have a silver band with hallmarks so one can date these pipes by the hallmark. Also, we must address the stamp "A Peterson Product.
So a pipe stamped thusly will have been made say from to the present with the COM stamp identifying it as a pre-Republic or a Republic pipe. Silver hallmarks are placed on the silver after an assay office, in Peterson's case, the Dublin Assay Office, has verified that the silver content is indeed sterling, in other words parts of silver per parts of the metal.
The silver hallmarks on Peterson pipes are a group of three marks, each in an escutcheon; the first is a seated Hibernia denoting Dublin Ireland, the second is a harp denoting the silver fineness, and the third is a letter denoting the year.
The style of letter and the shape of the escutcheon the letter is in, will determine the year in which the assay office stamped the metal band and not necessarily the year the pipe was made.
Peterson orders these bands by the thousands and sends them to the assay office for hallmarking. The assay office will stamp the date of the year in which they received the bands and it may be a year or two or three before Peterson's employees happen to place one of these bands on a pipe though generally the bands are placed on a pipe in the year they were stamped.
The Dublin hallmarks can be found in any book on silver markings or on one of several web sites. For the one year,the Dublin Assay Office added a fourth mark to commemorate the City of Dublin's founding in However, the Peterson pipes we have and have seen with silver dates of and generally do not have this fourth mark.
Established in , this factory manufactured clay pipes for over 70 years before closing in The Akron Smoking Pipe Company operated in Mogadore, Summit County, Ohio from to It also had branch factories in Point Pleasant, Ohio and Hampton, Virginia as late as . Pipe stem dating The clay pipe industry expanded rapidly as tobacco smoking gained popularity in both England and America. Historical archeologists excavating English colonial sites often find pieces of white clay smoking pipes on their sites. Jan 25, Clay pipe bowls can be dated with some certainty according to their shape, size and decoration, and with even more accuracy if they feature a maker's-mark on the 'heel', the protrusion under the bowl. The top pipe bowl above dates from while the one below is a fairly typical decorated one from
Here again, we must add a "maybe" to the above hallmarks. On 1 Junecertain countries attended an international conference on silver markings and decided to adopt an entirely different mark for sterling silver.
This mark is an Arabian numeral,located between the scales of a balance beam and in Peterson's case may or may not have the Hibernia and Harp marks to either side. These particular pipes can only be said to date between and the present, and were stamped as such for shipment to the different countries involved in the conference. For pipes shipped to all other countries, Peterson still uses the old style hallmarks.
Peterson pipes with a sterling silver band that does not have hallmarks could have been made for the United States market since the United States only requires sterling silver to be stamped "sterling silver" or "sterling.
Before we close this section on silver hallmarks, we must address the marks that many people refer to as hallmarks. Peterson uses three marks on some of their pipes that are not silver hallmarks but are rather another Peterson logo See Enclosure 4. These marks are:. Dating by series or numbers is an area in which we are having a difficult time of establishing. For instance, the series are all shapes used during the Patent Era and we believe Peterson started using this number system when the original patent expired.
In the case of the series and without looking at the COM stamp or silver hallmark, one can only say that they were made between and today.
The series was not in Peterson's catalogue. Though we are still trying to find the start dates of many series, here are some that we are pretty positive about:.
Peterson Clay, Bog Oak and Cherry Wood pipes were offered in the Patent Era with or without a formed case, as also offered with their briar and meerschaum pipes. Peterson made clay pipes during the Patent Era with only two shapes being offered and depicted in their catalogue.
Clay pipes dating
How long and in what years Peterson made these clays is not known but as stated above two shapes were offered in their catalogue. Then during World War II, Peterson again made clay pipes due to the understandable shortage of briar.
The clays of this period are stamped "Peterson System" and were only offered with nickel bands. This later production of clay pipes ended with the closing of Peterson's London Shop in the late s or early s.
The fragments of clay tobacco pipes, and london in the old visitors the clay pipes of the demand of clay tobacco pipes, and. Dating of clay pipe, old as london. If archaeologists found series the 1, clay tobacco pipes around. The date of the pipe will often narrow the search period (see bowl form typologies) as can the style of the mark. When looking at a mark it is important to distinguish between stamped marks, which were impressed into the clay after the pipe had been taken from the mould, and moulded marks, which were created by the mould benjamingaleschreck.comg: dating. As a result of their work, clay pipes have become perhaps the most useful tool for dating and interpreting archaeological deposits dating from the late sixteenth century onwards.
Long pipes allowed a cooler smoke, but also broke more easily and so they were often thrown away on the spot after use. Around a huge industrial decline took place due to conflict within Europe and America. Snuff taking in the upper classes became popular and smoking was discouraged because of health risks.
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Clay pipes came back into fashion again in the 19th Century along with industrial revival and population growth. By then Dutch, French and German designers as well as English were competing for attention in a huge world market where production was also elevated to a grand form of art.
Almost every ct of everyday life was celebrated on a clay pipe including: plants, animals, birds, Coats of Arms, Royal events, names of Inns, Masonic symbolism, sporting events, advertising, heads of celebrities and even characters from mythology.
Why I Love Clay Pipes
The humble clay that had once been so commonplace had come another full circle and, in our modern times, has been returned back to a novelty status enjoyed on occasions by collectors, nostalgic smokers and re-enactors of times past.
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