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Posted by: Doukus Posted on: 11.09.2020

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On July 11, , newlyweds Richard and Mildred Loving were asleep in bed when three armed police officers burst into the room. The couple were hauled from their house and thrown into jail, where Mildred remained for several days, all for the crime of getting married. At that time, 24 states across the country had laws strictly prohibiting marriage between people of different races. Five weeks earlier, the longtime couple had learned Mildred was pregnant and decided to wed in defiance of the law. In , they approached the American Civil Liberties Union to fight their case in court. After an extensive legal battle, the Supreme Court ruled that laws prohibiting interracial marriage were unconstitutional in June of The last law officially prohibiting interracial marriage was repealed in Alabama in

Due to the sheer scale of this comment community, we are not able to give each post the same level of attention, but we have preserved this area in the interests of open debate.

The country has a long way to go in terms of racial discourse, period. In the case of interracial dating, there are still huge stereotypes, misconceptions, and presumptions about what it means to date someone with a different race. As a black woman dating a non-black (and non-white) man, I've become more and more aware of the way in which these stereotypes still dictate the way we think about - and talk . Inter-racial / Mixed-race, Trans-racial or Cross racial relationships are among the most challenging relationships you may find yourself in. The couple involved might be able to deal with the fact that they are of different races; but in most cases, society is still not accommodative of mixed-race relationships / interracial dating and marrying. Evidence suggests that for a number of White people, an interracial relationship takes the invisibility of Whiteness and makes it visible, as White partners start to view themselves as racial.

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My father-in-law is just happy his daughter married an accountant with a nice car. When you can be harassed just for being in public together. When you learn that your relationship is so much more than what anyone else thinks. Follow Julia on Twitter. United States. Type keyword s to search. Today's Top Stories. General social beliefs towards interracial relationships dictate they are problematic and dysfunctional Davidson, ; Pope, The results indicate that interracial romantic relationships are actually quite rewarding, contrary to popular myth.

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All in all, there has been little to no support for the propositions that interracial relationships are inherently bad and dysfunctional. Interracial relationships appear to be as rewarding and cooperative as same-race romantic relationships.

Gaines, Jr. Romanticism and interpersonal resource exchange among African American-Anglo and other interracial couples. Journal of Black Psychology, 25, The authors surveyed interracial married couples to examine exchange of affection and respect in interracial marriages. The interracial couples had significant levels of affection and respect exchange.

The authors conclude there is no evidence of relationships dysfunctionality for cross-race couples. In addition, composition of the union e. Caucasian male-African-American female did not alter its success. Gaines Jr. The authors examined patterns of attachment style and responses to accommodative dilemmas e.

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Securely attached individuals reported less destructive behavior in response to a partner's negative behavior than insecurely attached individuals. The authors conclude that interracial couples "possess the ability to trust and form enduring socio-emotional bonds with their partners," and act in the interest of preserving the relationship.

Perspectives on interracial relationships. Duck Ed. Gaines and Ickes term most scientific approaches towards studying interracial relationships as "outsiders'" accounts of cross-race relationships.

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They argue that societal biases pervade the interracial relationships literature because most theorists tend to collect "objective" data on cross-race relationships without ever asking members of interracial relationships what their experiences actually are. For example, in terms of interracial romantic relationships, past theorists have determined the draw of "forbidden fruit" is the primary motivation for entering into a cross-race relationship.

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However, members of cross-race relationships tend to anecdotally report that they feel they have more in common with their partner personality-wise than they don't have in common demographic-wise. In addition, individuals involved in interracial romantic relationships report they value each other's differences as providing novelty and contributing to self-expansion.

The authors conclude their chapter with a discussion on the resolution between the "outsiders'" and "insiders'" perspectives. The resolution of this conflict is vital for the success of an interracial relationship, and their conclusions on this subject are discussed in more detail in the interracial relationships maintenance section, below.

Overall, minorities appear to be more accepting of interracial relationships than Caucasian-Americans. This is evidenced by larger proportions of minorities involved in interracial relationships than Caucasian-Americans U.

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Social attitudes about interracial relationships are important, particularly because fear of social reprisal may be a sufficient deterrent for initiating interracial relationships. Social attitudes also are important from a legislative perspective. Given that juries are supposed to be representative of local populations, attributions of guilt in criminal situations should be studied for systematic differences.

A set of studies into attributions of guilt in domestic violence situations found that respondents assigned more blame to the victim when she was an African-American and particularly if she had been drinking alcohol. In addition, when the abuse occurred in an interracial relationship, more blame was assigned to African-American males than Caucasian-American males.

These findings imply that African-American females in interracial relationships may be most at risk for not receiving the legal and social services they need. The findings concerning the differing interracial attitudes between the sexes have been quite mixed, where some findings report no differences, some studies report women have less tolerant attitudes, and other studies report women are more accepting of interracial relationships.

Regardless of the finding, the corresponding authors managed to come up with a logical explanation for each contradictory result.

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All in all, while most Americans espouse an egalitarian ideology Katz,social attitudes towards interracial relationships remain less accepting than intergroup attitudes, as a whole. Negative social attitudes towards interracial relationships can create barriers to interracial relationship formation and even contribute to unfair guilt attributions in legislature.

However, attitudes towards interracial relationships have improved over time, so hopefully this trend will sustain its present positive slope. Interracial relationships. Goodwin and D. Cramer Eds. They find that persons of color tend to have much more liberal attitudes towards interracial relationships than Caucasian-Americans. The authors discuss various beliefs about interracial relationships and compare these popular beliefs with research.

They find interracial relationships to be less stable than same-race relationships, but that relationship satisfaction appears to be the same in both cross- and same-race relationships. All in all, this is well-written examination into the intricacies of social attitudes towards interracial relationships. Harrison, L. Effects of race and victim drinking on domestic violence attributions. Sex Roles, 42, Harrison and Esqueda investigated the amount of blame college students assigned to victims of domestic violence in interracial relationships.

They presented participants with a vignette of a domestic violence incident, including transcripts of interviews with the police. They manipulated the race of the batterer African-American or Caucasianrace of the victim African-American or Caucasianand whether the victim had been drinking alcohol.

Overall, the participants attributed more blame to a victim who had been drinking. However, this was qualified by the race of the victim: African-American drinking victims were blamed more for the incident than Caucasian victims who had been drinking. Participants assigned more blame to the batterer when the batterer and victim constituted an interracial couple. Respondents blamed African-American batterers more when the victim was Caucasian than when the victim was African-American.

The authors conclude that assigned culpability is greater in interracial relationships than same-race relationships, and African-American victims, especially if they have been drinking, are at the greatest risk for not receiving the legal and social services they would need. Mills, J. A note on family acceptance involving interracial friendships and romantic relationships.

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The authors were interested in college students' perceptions of their families' attitudes towards interracial relationships. Overall, African-American students held more favorable attitudes towards interracial relationships than Caucasians, which is consistent with other findings.

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Respondents' perceived their families were not very accepting of interracial friendships or romantic relationships. Both African-Americans and Caucasians reported their families had equally negative views on interracial relationships. Worry about family reactions to interracial relationships may deter individuals from initiating and maintaining interracial relationships.

Baldwin, J.

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The structure s of racial attitudes among White college students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 24, The authors investigated the structure of Caucasian Americans' prejudicial attitudes by testing various theories of racism. They determined that theories of racial prejudice tend to fall into three structural categories: 1 "one-dimensional racism" - highly prejudiced individuals are prejudiced against all out-groups equally; 2 "racism as target-specific" - racial prejudice varies by culture and historical time period, but all members of stigmatized groups are discriminated against equally; 3 "racism as multi-faceted" - attitudes towards particular groups and group members vary by context, such as Caucasians' attitudes towards civil rights legislation benefiting African-Americans may vary from Caucasians' attitudes regarding interracial marriage.

Caucasian college students completed surveys assessing attitudes towards African- and Mexican-Americans in different contexts e.

Using structural equation modeling, the authors found that participants' attitudes varied more according to functions of interactions with minorities than between ethnic groups. In other words, Caucasians' attitudes towards Mexican- and African-Americans were more a function of social distance with interracial dating and marriage being the most inclusive level of social distance than particular group membership.

Despite negative social attitudes towards interracial relationships, there are many benefits to cross-race friendships and relationships. These benefits span from decreased prejudice to higher educational aspirations and leadership skills. Overall, studies involving both children and adults overwhelmingly support contentions that cross-race friendships increase positive intergroup relations in the U.

There has been much replication of studies showing better cross-race attitudes among individuals with high proportions of interracial friendships. For children, the positive effects appear to span beyond intergroup attitudes to social and achievement domains. Among school children, greater interracial friendliness has been associated with beneficial outcomes in both achievement and social domains.

In addition, students with high proportions of cross-race friendships show no difference in attitudes towards their same- and cross-race friends, whereas students with low quality or no interracial friendships consistently rated their same-race friends more positively on personality measures. Therefore, cross-race friendships among children can improve their academic motivations, their feelings about same- vs.

Sociology of Education, 63, A large, national sample of high school sophomores and seniors revealed beneficial outcomes of interracial friendship for academic success and leadership.

Overall, African-Americans had higher educational aspirations than Caucasians. However, both African-American and Caucasian students with cross-race friends had higher educational aspirations and outcomes. The authors conclude that interracial friendships appears beneficial for educational and achievement domains. Hunter, L. Interracial friendships, multicultural sensitivity, and social competence: How are they related?

Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 20, Hunter and Elias examined the social competence and multicultural sensitivity of 5 th graders who had no or low quality interracial friendships or high quality interracial friendships. Among the female students, interracial friendships were associated with greater social competence more sociable, less aggressive and multicultural sensitivity increased minority acceptance, lowered desire for social distance from other ethnic groups, more diverse social networks.

The marriage and divorce trial of Kip Rhinelander and Alice Jones brought the racial tensions of a nation to court, examining how a person is labeled as "colored" and "white" in legal terms. They contend that maintenance of cross-race relationships involves the successful management of four stages: 1) racial awareness - discovering the perspectives of one's partner's race, and realizing the role race plays in one's life, 2) coping with social definitions of race - learning strategies for dealing with a racially biased reactions from society, 3) identity emergence - the couple begins to view themselves . Oct 27, † When it comes to interracial dating, the people who've been there will tell you there can definitely be struggles. In a recent Ask thread, .

The authors examined how positively students viewed their same- and cross-race friends on a variety of personality characteristics. Overall, African-American students rated their African-American and Caucasian friends equally positively, but Caucasian students rated their African-American friends less positively than their Caucasian friends. What are the benefits of cross-race friendships for adults? A meta-analysis on intergroup contact conducted by Pettigrew and Tropp revealed that cross-race friendship was associated with less prejudicial attitudes over 39 studies.

Pettigrew, T. Does intergroup contact reduce prejudice? Recent meta-analytic findings. Oskamp Ed. In addition to intergroup contact, the authors examined 39 tests which specifically investigated the positive effects of intergroup friendship on levels of prejudice. They found that intergroup friendship was highly associated with decreased intergroup prejudice. These findings support the contention that cross-race friendship is a key factor in reducing intergroup prejudice, mistrust, and discrimination.

Sigelman, L. The contact hypothesis revisited: Black-White interaction and positive racial attitudes. Social Forces, 71, Sigelman and Welch analyzed data from a national telephone survey of American adults. They were interested in how interracial friendship effected perceptions of anti-African-American sentiment.

In general, African-Americans were much more likely than Caucasians to endorse items stating most Caucasians shared beliefs with the Ku Klux Klan and perceive rising levels of racism nationwide as well as in their neighborhood. Interestingly, African-Americans were also more likely than Caucasians to perceive rising anti-Caucasian sentiment among African-Americans. However, interracial friendship moderated these effects. For African-Americans, interracial friendships were associated with less belief in the prevalence of Klan-like attitudes, and less perceived increase in racism in their neighborhood.

In addition, African-Americans with interracial friends perceived less anti-Caucasian sentiments. For Caucasians, interracial friendship was associated with less perceived anti-African-American sentiment in their neighborhood.

In addition, Caucasians with interracial friends had a greater commitment to African-American-Caucasian interaction than Caucasians without cross-race friends. Wright, S. The extended contact effect: Knowledge of cross-group friendships and prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, The authors created competition between two groups of randomly assigned participants who thought the groups had been formed on the basis of similarity.

After intergroup hostility had been established, the participants observed one member of their in-group a confederate complete a puzzle task with a member of the out-group also a confederate. The authors conclude that merely observing an in-group member act friendly towards an out-group member increases positive feelings towards that out-group.

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This finding is very optimistic for social change, as it implies that the positive effects of interracial friendship extend beyond the immediate friendship; increased positive attitudes towards other races may increase exponentially as more interracial friendships are formed.

Davidson, J. Interracial marriages: A clinical perspective. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 20, - Gurung, R. Mixing and matching: Assessing the concomitants of mixed-ethnic relationships.

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Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 16, Katz, I. Stigma: A social-psychological perspective. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Pinkney, A.

Feb 11, † Interracial dating isn't without its problems, but today interracial relationships enjoy more support in the United States than they have at any point in history. While two decades ago, fewer than half of Americans approved of interracial marriage, now 65 percent of all Americans support such relationships, and 85 percent of young people do.

Black Americans 4 th ed. Pope, B. Black men in interracial relationships: Psychological and therapeutic issues. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 14, 10 -



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