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Posted by: Mudal Posted on: 01.07.2020

A spindle whorl is one of several tools used by textile producers, and it is an artifact that is just about as universal in form as we humans make. A spindle whorl is a disk-shaped object with a hole in the center, and it is used in the ancient art of making cloth. The presence of a spindle whorl on an archaeological site is an indication of the technological advance of textile production called spinning. Spinning is the process of creating cords, yarn or thread from raw plant, animal, and even metal fibers. The resulting yarn can then be woven into cloth and other textiles, producing clothing, blankets, tents, shoes: an entire range of woven materials that make our human lives supportable.

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From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. English: Spindle whorls in the Portable Antiquities Scheme. Media in category "Spindle whorls in the Portable Antiquities Scheme" The following files are in this category, out of 3, total.

Medieval lead spindle whorl FindID Sandstone spindle whorl. FindID Probable spindle whorl of uncertain date FindID Spindle whorl? Medieval spindle whorl, obverse FindID Medieval spindle whorl, reverse FindID Roman spindle whorl, obverse FindID Roman spindle whorl, reverse FindID Spindle whorl FindID A back view of a lead spindle whorl, possibly dating to the Roman period.

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A biconical lead spindle whorl of the 15th- 16th century. A cast lead relatively flat, circular spindle whorl, probably dating to the 15th- 16th century AD. A cast lead spindle whorl of unknown date FindID A cast lead spindle whorl, possibly dating to the Roman period. A cast lead weight or spindle whorl of probable medieval date.

A cast lead weight, possibly a spindle whorl FindID A cast lead weight, possibly a spindle whorl or net weight. A cast lead weight, possibly a spindle whorl that is heavily abraded dating between and AD.

Nov 25, Spindle whorls are not necessary for making cords or threads, although they vastly improve the process, and they appear in the archaeological record during the Neolithic period worldwide at various times (the "Neolithic package" including agriculture and other complexities appeared in different places at different times around the world). The earliest example I found in the literature is . If the object were a spindle, its whorl would have been slightly heavier than most archaeologists have found two lead objects dating to before the fourth millennium B.C. in northern. Dec 02, Radiocarbon dating of the shaft provided a asserts that the Ashalim Cave object was a spindle, in which case the shaft would have been the spindle rod and the lead object would have been used as a whorl. This interpretation is based on the morphology of the whole artifact, including the position of the depression and the perforated metal Cited by: 7.

A cast lead weight, possibly a spindle whorl. A cast lead-alloy object, possibly a spindle whorl dating from the later medieval period, i. A cast lead-alloy weight, probably a spindle whorl of probable Medieval date - AD.

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A complete cast lead weight, possible spindle whorl of uncertain date. The FindID A complete circular biconical cast lead-alloy weight, probaby a spindle whorl dating from the Roman period judging by the form and grey patina, i. A complete lead alloy weight or spindle whorl of probable medieval date FindID A complete lead alloy weight or spindle whorl of probable medieval date.

The object is broadly circular in plan and cylindrical. A conical weight FindID A decorated lead spindle whorl. A front view of a lead spindle whorl, possibly dating to the Roman period. A lead alloy spindle whorl FindID A lead conical weight.

Dating lead spindle whorls

Roman to post Medieval. A Lead medieval spindle whorl FindID A lead spindle whorl probably of Medieval date FindID A lead spindle whorl, dating to the 15th- 16th century AD. A Medieval - Post Medieval lead alloy weight, probably a spindle whorl 13th - 16th century. A Medieval - Post Medieval pottery spindle whorl. A Medieval lead alloy spindle whorl dating 12th - 15th century. We may speculate that the lead object was originally used in another context, which would have made it possible to acknowledge its rarity and significance e.

Its eventual deposition in the deepest section of Ashalim Cave, in relation to the burial of selected individuals, serves as evidence of the symbolic significance it possessed until the final phase of its biography. We would like to thank Miriam Lavi, Head of the Conservation Lab at the Institute of Archaeology, Hebrew University, for her careful treatment of the object, as well as for sampling.

The work was made possible with the kind assistance of the Lady Davis Fellowship Trust. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. PLoS One.

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Published online Dec 2. John P. Hart, Editor.

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Received Jul 21; Accepted Oct This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited.

Radiocarbon dating puts Building 3 within the range of AD to placing the spindle-whorl solidly within an early medieval context. The sandstone whorl is complete with a circular profile and relatively flat sides giving it a rectangular cross section. Domed lead spindle whorls are generally Roman but go through to the post medieval period. Before the use of spinning wheels, spinning was carried out with a spindle and a whorl. The spindle, or rod, usually had a swelling on which the whorl was fitted. A wisp of prepared wool was twisted around the spindle, which was then spun and allowed to drop. The whorl, acting like a flywheel adds momentum . A cast lead weight, possibly a spindle whorl to AD (FindID ).jpg 1, ? ; KB. A cast lead weight, possibly a spindle whorl or net weight. (FindID ).jpg 1, ? 1,; KB. A cast lead weight, possibly a spindle whorl that is heavily abraded dating .

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract In the deepest section of a large complex cave in the northern Negev desert, Israel, a bi-conical lead object was found logged onto a wooden shaft.

Introduction Lead occurs in nature mainly as galena lead sulphide and cerussite lead carbonate. Open in a separate window. Fig 1. The Lead object. The lead object with shaft insitu at Ashalim Cave. Fig 2.

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Environmental and Archaeological Context Ashalim Cave is a large complex karstic cave located on the barren slopes of Boqer Ridge, one of the northeast-trending anticlines of the northern Negev Desert Fig 3. Fig 3. View of Ashalim Cave in its desert environment. The vertical entrance to the cave is located in front of the standing figure. Fig 4.

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Plan of Ashalim Cave. The plan of Ashalim Cave with the location of the lead object marked by a dot. Description of the Object Further beyond the mortuary chambers, on the surface of one of the innermost narrow passages indicated on Fig 4a single artifact was found, composed of a Fig 5.

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Analytical Methods Two small samples of metal were extracted, using a scalpel, from the inner part of the perforation for chemical, isotopic and microstructure analyses. Fig 6. Microscopic images of the sampled area. Table 1 Normalized trace element concentrations ppm measured by WDS. Results Chemical Composition The results of the chemical analysis show that the object was made of almost pure metallic lead, comprising Fig 7.

Results of lead isotope analysis. Discussion The Significance of Early Lead Smelting The chemical analysis of the Ashalim Cave object indicates that the lead was likely to have been smelted from a relatively pure ore.

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The Origin of The Lead It is notable that the possible sources of the lead ore of the Ashalim Cave object all concentrate in south-central and southeastern Anatolia. Acknowledgments We would like to thank Miriam Lavi, Head of the Conservation Lab at the Institute of Archaeology, Hebrew University, for her careful treatment of the object, as well as for sampling.

Data Availability All relevant data are within the paper. References 1.

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Patterson CC. Silver stocks and losses in ancient and medieval times. Rev ; 25 : - Moorey PRS. Oxford: Clarendon; Prag K. Essays for Kathleen Kenyon. Warminster: Aris and Phillips; Cycladic Lead and Silver Metallurgy. The Annual of the British School at Athens ; 76 : - Hess K, Hauptmann A. Wright HT, Whallon R.

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Bochum: Deutsches Bergbau Museum; Pernicka E. Bochum: Deutsches Bergau Museum; Nezafati N, Pernicka E. Early Silver Production in Iran.

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Iranian Archaeology ; 3 : Earth and Planetary Science Letters ; : Frumkin A. The Quaternary of the Levant. Cambridge University Press; Forthcoming; Cohen R. Jerusalem: Israel Antiquities Authority; The earliest Near-Eastern wooden spinning implements Antiquity Forthcoming.

Bronze Age copper sources in the Mediterranean: a new approach. Science ; : Hauptmann A.

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Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences ; 1 : - Archaeometallurgy in Global Perspective: Methods and Syntheses. New York: Springer; Isotope-ratio measurements of lead in NIST standard reference materials by multiple- collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Fresenius Journal of Analytical Chemistry ; : - Metalla ; 19 : 3- Sources of Galena, lead and silver in predynastic Egypt.

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Meliksetian K, Pernicka E. Milano: Associazione Italiana di Metallurgia; Mainz: Verlag Philipp Von Zabern; Ancient Mining in Turkey and the Eastern Mediterranean. Ankara: Atilim University; Introduction of the the Deh Hosein ancient tin-copper mine, western Iran: Evidence from geology, archaeology, geochemistry and lead isotope analysis. Gale NH. Thera and the Aegean Worl Vol. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz; Bochum; Stable lead isotope studies of Central Taurus ore sources and related artifacts from Eastern Mediterranean Chalcolithic and Bronze Age sites.

Journal of Archaeological Science ; 18 : - Statistical evaluation of presently accumulated lead isotope data from Anatolia and surrounding regions.

Archaeometry ; 34 : Stable lead isotope studies of Black Sea Anatolian ore sources and related Bronze Age and Phrygian artefacts from nearby archaeological sites. Appendix: New Central Taurus ore data. Archaeometry ; 43 : Chemical composition and lead isotopy of metal objects from the "Royal" Tomb and other related finds at Arslantepe, Eastern Anatolia.

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The investigation s of Soviet Expedition in Iraq Sumer ; 33 : 84, pl. Prehistoric Assyria; the excavations at Tell Arpachiyah. Wertime TA.

Help With Dating Spindle Whorl New Photos added. Post by arfur_sleep Wed Oct 12, am. Hi, out yesterday on a new field, disked and rolled and ready for drilling. Using the Minelab CTX on IGH Tadpole. Pattern 2 to search and pattern 1 for confirmation. Found nice small thimble and a lovely spindle whorl. I know Whorls are. UKDFD database, The UKDFD is an initiative by members of the metal-detecting community to promote good practice within the hobby. It is an easy-to-use, friendly and supportive online facility for detectorists to record their finds and ensure that the information is preserved for future generations. File:A cast lead spindle whorl of unknown date (FindID ).jpg. Quick Links. Post navigation. banner-supportus.

The beginnings of metallurgy: A new look. Science ; : - American Antiquity ; 36 : - Tylecote RF. Metallurgy in Archaeology. London; Mellaart J. Sperl G. Zur Urgeschichte des Bleies.

Pigott VC. Der Anschnitt 9.

Medieval lead spindle whorl found metal detecting

Bochum: Deutsches Bergbau-Museum; On the origins of extractive metallurgy: new evidence from Europe. Journal of Archaeological Science ; 37 : -



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