This guide is meant to aid the collector in identifying and dating real photo postcards, and to act as a reminder that it is impossible to do so with great accuracy. A lthough real photo postcards were made in a variety of ways, they hold one identifiable feature in common. The tonalities of photos are completely continuous to the eye producing true greys, for they are created by the reaction of individual photosensitive molecules to light rather than the transfer of ink from a plate. In printed images the grey areas are usually made up of black marks that are spaced to create the optical illusion of greys. Though most of us today are familiar with the concept of photo grain, this is mostly because we have experienced very large prints made from small 35mm negatives.
The thin paper was also easy to cut and paste and pieces of these photos were commonly collaged into scrapbooks and sometimes pasted onto postcards. All albumen prints were made by contact printing and printed out.
Velox was first produced by the Nepera Chemical Co. in c. In Nepera was bought out by Eastman. It was invented by Leo Baekeland who went on to develop Bakelite. Surfaces were (in Great Britain): Glossy - until Art - semi-gloss, discontinued around Carbon - dead smooth matt, discontinued around Velox was the first commercially successful photographic paper. In Baekeland sold his company and rights to the paper to the U.S. inventor George Eastman for $1, Other articles where Velox is discussed: Leo Baekeland: company to manufacture his invention, Velox, a photographic paper that could be developed under artificial light. Contact printing 'kodak/velox/paper, ' patented automated delivery system, new orleans advocate's what is carbon 14 radiometric dating used for with. In dating the verso of postcards rppc are a. There is an negative right onto a new date kodak photographic paper, exact date of That date from as it also.
Albumen prints are categorized by warm tones that should now have considerable yellowing. They were almost always toned to improve their sour yellow look.
Most Real Photo Postcards, abbreviated RPPC, have information on their backs to help in identifying the manufacturer of the photographic paper that was used by the postcard publisher. If you can identify the paper manufacturer, you can approximate the age of the old postcard. May 26, A preliminary finding is that the single word "Velox" with no other graphic embellishments was used to mark papers manufactured in the United States dating from the late 's to the late 's. * If the back of a photo has the printing 'Velox,' the photo dates circa ss. * If the back of the photo has the three line printing 'Kodak/Velox/Paper,' the photo dates circa ss. * The printing 'A Kodak Paper' was commonly used in the s and early s.
Gold toning created a red to purple brown cast or a blue black. Platinum toning created a brown look. When double toned with gold and platinum the print would remain neutral. The paper itself was often dyed pink; though blue, green, and violet were also common. About 85 percent of all photographs made in the 19th century were albumen prints.
They were so familiar to the public eye that albumen became synonymous with photography. It was not very light sensitive and was only used for contact printing with direct exposure to the sun. This silver chloride paper had a collodion emulsion that could be washed out with water after exposure.
As this paper was manufactured before the advent of real photo postcards, its first release was on thin paper stock. Collodion emulsions produced prints with a very fine tonal range and sharp details.
Collodion however was highly flammable, which detracted from its popularity.
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Most collodion papers fell out of common use before real photo postcards were made. It was not meant for postcards and had no postcard back. Gelatin Prints - These chloride papers were made with very small particles of silver suspended in a gelatin emulsion.
They tend to be vulnerable to contamination and can easily deteriorate. They were much faster than collodion based papers and were able to be exposed indoors under gaslight lamps gaslight paperbut they remained slow enough to be used only in contact printing.
Its ease of use made it the most popular paper on the market for real photo postcards. They were manufactured with postcard backs. NOTE: Azo paper without postcard backs continued to be made until Because this required guess work to judge exposure time, these papers were not as popular at first as printing out papers.
In Kodak introduced a developing machine for professional and amateur alike, and between and photo processing services for postcards were also offered to encouraged sales. These papers weretimes more light sensitive than print out papers and eventually became the paper of choice.
Their speed not only allowed them to be used with an enlarger but it increased production speed as well. Bromide Prints - Bromide prints are developed out producing a very stable image due to their large silver particles. They have a warm to blue-black color and are highly subject to tarnishing.
While permanent bromide paper was developed alongside chloride papers, its cost, difficulty to process, and lower tonal range kept it from being widely used in America. Large quantities could also be produced in consistant color because they did not require toning. However there was no demand for mass production until real photo postcards became popular. Bromide paper was relatively fast and was meant to be used with an enlarger.
Rotograph and Kodak both manufactured bromide paper.
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The words Bromide Print often appear on these cards rather than a brand name, or they go unlabled. Chloride Prints - These silver chloride papers in a gelatin emulsion were much faster than traditional papers that required sunlight exposure. They became known as gaslight papers because of their ability to be exposed indoors under gaslight. They produced a good tonal range with high detail. They were often toned a warm brown to avoid their natural red to purplish brown color.
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These papers were sold in heavy weights with preprinted backs for specifically creating real photo postcards. The emultion on these papers were generally applied to paper with Baryta sizing, which was only available from Germany until Kodak began to manufacture it in The brand names of these papers allow us to date many photographs today.
NOTE: A warm brown chlorobromide paper with improved tonal range started being used in Europe in Bromide also started being added to American made silver chloride prints to increase speed but not on a consistent basis. NOTE: Velox paper without a postcard back was manufactured until Some Kruxo cards have no stamp box.
The sulphur Hypo solutions used to wash out excess silver and fix the print cannot be entirely washed off and they to in time yellow paper.
Older papers also often had unappealing coloration so they were toned or printed on dyed paper. This is parcially due to the paper quality itself and also from the diffusion of light as the image is projected onto the paper. Modern photo papers also contain optical brighteners not found in older papers. When exposed to long wave black light these new papers will glow a bright white.
When newer resin coated papers entered the market real photo postcards were no longer being made in any significant number to produce postcard backs for them.
Edmond Becquerel made the first color print in but there was no way to fix the image onto paper at that time. While some strange forms of color prints were made by Heliochromy or the Vidal process, they were crude and saw no commercial applications. This means that the light sensitive chemical mixture in paper and film are suspended in gelatin with a few added little things before being applied to the base paper or plastic during manufacture. This is the same gelatin as found in products such as Jello.
The same green Jello you eat at 3am while watching monster movies on that channel no one watches at any other time.
Often times you will see old film begin to show a color shift and lower sensitivity. To a certain extent these effects can be slowed down through refrigeration and proper storage.
Sixty two years is certainly pushing the envelope well beyond reasonable limits. I have been shooting my way through the huge pile of cameras I have acquired recently and have managed to produce a fair stack of negatives. I picked a few of my favorite images and hit the dark room. When I say darkroom, I mean the bathroom in my house.
Kodak controlled 80of the paper market with their brands Artura, Azo, Aristo, EKC. Solio, and Velox. Cyko by Ansco, Argo by Defender, and Kruxo by Kilborn comprised most of the remaining market. Many other brands of photo paper were also manufactured in Europe but rarely left the continent. PRINTING OUT PAPER. Nov 15, Dating velox photo paper - Men looking for a woman - Women looking for a woman. If you are a middle-aged woman looking to have a good time dating woman half your age, this advertisement is for you. How to get a good man. It is not easy for women to find a good man, and to be honest it is not easy for a man to find a good woman. Kodak Velox Rapid paper was a fiber based photographic paper used to create prints from photographic negatives. the F3 designation means that this is a medium-high contrast paper, best used for negatives a little on the under exposed side. The F means glossy, the 3 is the contrast designation. Single weight refers to the thickness of the paper base.
I have the trays in the tub and the enlarger off to the side. For the developer, I use liquid Ilford Multigrade paper developer because I can mix it in single tray batches without having to store huge bottles of mixed chemistry that will just go bad before I can use them up.
Other than that, I just use a plain water stop bath and regular Kodak Fixer. I started by making a test print to check for exposure times.
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I expose this for two seconds, then move the cover over slightly and expose it for another two seconds, and repeat. When developed this should tell me the rough ballpark for proper exposure time. I threw the strip jauntily into the developer and after a minute or so, it was still blank. This is generally a bad sign, as I should be looking at some sort of image.
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In Nepera was bought out by Eastman. It was invented by Leo Baekeland who went on to develop Bakelite. Surfaces were in Great Britain : Glossy - until Art - semi-gloss, discontinued around Carbon - dead smooth matt, discontinued around Portrait - semi-smooth, discontinued before Velvet - same as art, introduced around White Smooth Glossy - from White Velvet Lustre - from Cream Smooth Glossy.
Grades were: Soft. Medium - from c. Contrast - from c.
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Extra Soft - introduced early s. Extra Contrast - from late s. Prior to Velox had its own numbering system, after that date Kodak standard designations were used. From c. Collodion, self-toning printing-out paper.
Kodatone gave sepia to purple images. Toning was by a hypo bath preceded by a salt bath to give tones other than sepia.
Several surfaces were produced including matt and glossy, on a white or cream base. Gelatine silver bromide, developing-out paper. BV-2 Z. Velvet medium, double-weight. Silk, normal, white lustre, double-weight. Marked 'Kodak Works Photographic Society'.