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ANT - Historical Archaeology. Uses of Ceramics and other domestic artifacts! Introduction Rural and Domestic Life: In progress. Although there are some written descriptions of life on the frontier, archaeology is a key source. Immigrants took land grants, cleared forest, and built log houses.

Though it has only been established on bricks and tiles of up to 2, years of age, research is continuing to determine whether RHX can be accurately used on any fired-clay material, for example earthenware of up to 10, years of age.

The original work of Wilson and co-workers was undertaken on construction materials, bricks and tiles. These studies have encountered issues with components within the ceramics causing either addition mass gain or additional mass loss during the RHX measurement process.

The quality of data generated by the Manchester and Edinburgh groups has been due to analysing fired-clay materials which do not contain these components. Efforts to successfully replicate the original work and overcome the challenges presented by archaeological ceramics are underway in several academic institutions worldwide. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Proceedings of the Royal Society A. Journal of the American Ceramic Society. Physical Review Letters. Bibcode : PhRvL. May 25, Compute Scotland. S Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth. Bibcode : IzPSE. Retrieved 22 March Journal of Archaeological Science. Physics World. E Applied Clay Science.

Quaternary Geochronology. Categories : History of ceramics Ceramic engineering Dating methodologies in archaeology Ceramic materials. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.

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Term terminus post quem. Definition the date after which a stratum or feature must have been deposited of created. Term terminus ante quem.

Definition the date before which a stratum or feature must have been deposited or created. Term pipe stem dating. Definition using clay tobacco pipes to create a chronology for Jamestown. Term mean ceramic dating. Definition a statistical technique for combining the median age of manufacture for temporally significant pottery types to estimate the average age of a feature or site.

Term dendrochronology.

measure of central tendency in assemblages of datable ceramics from historical sites in eastern United States. He intended this to give an idea of most likely occupation date of site or context. The method uses the range of dates for each ceramic type as basic. a method of dating archaeological specimens, chiefly pottery, by measuring the radiation given off by ceramic materials as they are heated. In archaeology, seriation is a relative dating method in which assemblages or artifacts from numerous sites in the same culture are placed in chronological order. Where absolute dating methods, such as carbon dating, cannot be applied, archaeologists have to use relative dating methods to date archaeological finds and features. Seriation is a standard method of dating in archaeology. It .

Definition tree ring dating- the use of annual growth rings in trees to assign calendar ages to ancient wood samples. Term Andrew E. Definition uses tree ring dating to give southwester archaeology a reliable year by year dating tool. Term Floating chronology.

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Definition a tree ring history whose beginning and end dates are not known; it can be anchored by cross matching a section against another chronology. Term bristlecone pines. Definition important trees because they have a fully anchored chronology that extended back years.

Term radiocarbon dating. Definition measuring the decay of carbon isotopes in an artifact to determine the age of the artifact. Term half-life.

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Definition the time required for half the carbon 14 isotope available in an organic sample to decay. Term accelerator mass spectrometery AMS. Definition a method of radiocarbon dating that counts the proportions of carbon isotopes directly, thereby dramatically reducing the quantity of datable material required.

Term shroud of turin. Definition the so-called cloth where christ's crucified body was wrapped. Term Argon-Argon dating.

Definition a high precision method for estimating the relative quantities of of argon gas isotopes; used to date volcanic ashes that are between and several million years old. Term Homo Erectus dating issue. Definition potassium argon dating was primarily used, and te homo erectus skull tested should have been younger according to incorrect prior beliefs.

The potassiumhas cumbersome procedures and require large samples that increase the likelihood of contamination and error. Term trapped charge dating.

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Definition forms of dating that rely on the fact that electrons become trapped in minerals' crystal lattices as a function of background radiation. The age of the specimen is the total radiation received divided by the annual dose of radiation.

Term thermoluminescence. Definition trapped charge dating technique used on ceramics and burned stone artifacts. Definition a trapped charge dating technique used to date sedimetns: tree age is the same elapsed between the last time a few moment's exposure to sunligght set the clock to zero and the present. Term stratigraphy. Term Nicholas Steno. Definition formulates the law of superposition.

Term William "Strata" Smith.

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Definition o began supervising the surveying of the Somerset Coal Canal near Bath. While engaged in this project, Smith noted the regular succession of the rock strata. He determined in greater precision than previously noted the succession of English strata across the entire country, and his observation that the fossils found at deeper layers differed dramatically from those found at shallow layers gave early indications of the evolutionary process.

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Smith was also the first to create geological maps, beginning in In developing a type of map showing outcrops in block, he established a standard for geological cartography that lasted until the 's. Definition the geological principle that in any pile of sedimentary rocks that have not ben disturbed, each bed is older than the layers above and younger than the layers below. Term Laetoli footprints. Term Cagy-l'epinette site. Definition o Evidences of living floors, where human ancestors had lived o Distribution of artifacts within the site is essentially meaningless because it reflets river action, rather than patterns of human activity.

Term Soil Horizon A. Definition the upper part of the soil, where active organic and mechanical decomposition of geological and organic material occurs.

Term Soil Horizon B. Definition layer of soil found under the A horizon, where clays accumulate that are transported downwards by water. Term Soil Horizon C. Definition a layer found below the B horizon, that consists of the unaltered of slightly altered parent material, below the horizon is bedrock.

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Term "Marker Beds". Definition an easily identified geologic layer whose age has been independently confirmed at numerous locations and whose presence can therefore by used to date archaeological and geological sediments.

Thermoluminescence (called TL) datingwas invented around by physicists, and is based on the fact that electrons in all minerals emit light (luminesce) after being heated. It is good for between about to about , years ago, and is a natural for dating ceramic vessels. mean ceramic dating Definition a statistical technique for combining the median age of manufacture for temporally significant pottery types to estimate the average age of a feature or site. assumes that the ceramic types are roughly contemporary at all sites where they occur and the mid-range date of the manufacturing time period approximates the model date of popularity. Rehydroxylation dating is a developing method for dating fired-clay ceramics. It is based on the fact that after a ceramic specimen is removed from the kiln at the time of production, it immediately begins to recombine chemically with moisture from the environment. This reaction reincorporates hydroxyl groups into the ceramic material, and is described as rehydroxylation. The RHX process produces an .

Term Mazama eruption. Definition a volcano erupted, spreading out ash over a huge area of land, creating a geological layer that can be sued as a marker bed. Dates years old. Term reverse stratigraphy. Definition the result when sediemnt is unearthed by human or natural actions and moved elsewhere in such a way that the latest material is deposited on the bottom of the new sediment and progressively earlier material is deposited higher and higher in the stratigraphy.

Term Chetro Ketl. Definition excavated by Florence Hawley ellis. This meant that when constructing a new mound, the most recent trash, at the top, was used first and then a little older and a little older and so on until the stratigraphy was essentially upside down.

Term Sir Mortimer Wheeler- Dating. Definition In excavating south india, found evidence of roman artifacts in the form of pottery and coins. Term Sit Mortimer Wheeler- Stratigraphic area excavation. Definition developed the box-gid system. Term box-grid system. Definition requires dividing the excavation area into a grid and digging in small squares. The vital part of this system is making sure that each excavation square is separated by a narrow strip of ground called baulk.

Keeping this strip of ground allows the vertical strata of each excavation square to be revealed and used as archaeological information.

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Term seriation. Definition -a relative dating method that orders artifacts based on the assumption that one cultural style slowly replaces an earlier style over tie; with a master seriation diagram, sites can be dated based on their frequencies of several artifact styles. Term popularity seriation battle shaped curves. Definition by arranging the proportions of temporal types into lozenge shaped curves, one can determine a relative chronological sequence.

Definition studying gravestone markers, observed a slow shift from pagan to Christian gravestones, reflecting attitudes about religion and death. Term Provenience. Definition an artifacts location relative to a system of spatial data collection. Term Folsom Site. Definition - Folsom Site o Cowboy finds bison bones etc etc. Term Lovelock Cave. Term Ozette. Term Datum Point. Definition the zero point, a field reference used to keep control over the location of artifacts, features etc.

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Usually controls both the vertical and horizontal dimensions of provenience. Term Test Pits Excavations. Definition a small initial excavation to determine a site's potential for answering a research question. Term natural layer.

Definition the vertical subdivision of an excavation square that is based on natural breaks in the sediments in terms of color, grain size, texture, hardness or other characteristics. Term arbitrary layers.

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Definition the basic vertical subdivision of an excavation square; used only when easily recognizable "natural" strata are lacking or are more than 10 cm thick. Term proton precession magnetometer. Definition a remote sensing technique that measures the strength of magnetism between the earth's magnetic core and a sensor controlled by the archaeologist.

Term soil resistivity. Definition a remote sensing technique that monitors the electrical resistance of soils in a restricted volume near the surface of an archaeological site; changes in the amount of resistance registered by the resistivity meter can indicate buried walls or features. Since rock doesn't pass electrical current as well as soil does, measuring levels of resistivity can identify subsurface features like buried foundation walls.

Definition a remote sensing technique in which radar pulses directed into the ground reflect back to the surface when they strike features or interfaces within the ground, showing the presence and depth of possible buried features. The disadvantage is that is is severly limited by less than ideal environmental conditions. Term sample universe. Definition the region that contains the statistical population that will be sampled. Its size and shape are determined by the research question and practical considerations.

Term sample units. Definition survey units of a standard size and shape, determined by the research question and practical considerations, used to obtain the sample. Term sample fraction. Definition the percentage of the sample universe that is surveyed.

Term random sampling. Definition a random sample is a sample drawn from a statistical population such that every member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample- done by generating a list of random coordinates and excavating units at those coordinates- can provide uneven coverage or concentrate units in areas away from surface finds.

Definition handheld devices that use triangulation from radio waves received from satellites to determin your current position in terms of either the UTM grid or latitude and longitude. Term Chaco Canyon roads. Definition Archaeological interpretations of the Chaco road system are divided between an economic purpose and a symbolic, ideological role linked to ancestral Puebloan beliefs.

A further suggestion is that the widespread use of timber in Chacoan constructions-a resource not locally available-needed a large and easy transportation system. Furthermore, considering that some of these roads seem to go nowhere, experts suggest that they can be linked-especially the Great North Road-to astronomical observations, solstice marking, and agricultural cycles.

Term chaco canyon "Great Houses". Definition mmense complexes known as "Great Houses" embodied worship at Chaco.

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The Chacoans used masonry techniques unique for their time, and their building constructions lasted decades and even centuries. Numerous buildings and interbuilding alignments of the great houses of Chaco Canyon and outlying areas are oriented to the same solar and lunar directions that are marked at the Sun Dagger site.

Term astro-archaeology Chaco. Definition the study of how people in the past "have understood the phenomena in the sky, how they used phenomena in the sky, and what role the sky played in their cultures.

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Term seasonal round. Definition hunter-gatherer's pattern of movement between different places on the landscape, timed to the seasonal availability of food and other resources. Term Alta toquima. Definition Before survey and excavations conducted at Alta Toquima by Dr. Thomas and his team, many archaeologists believed that early American hunters avoided high altitude environments as too harsh and barren to sustain life.

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However, mountains were used intermittently by small groups of hunters who seasonally exploited mountain sheep. These new large, long-term settlements at Alta Toquima represented a major shift in how ancient Americans used mountain resources, and illustrate how archaeological research continues to teach us about the past.

Term Settlement pattern.

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Definition the distribution of archaeological sites across a region. Term Sir Cyril Fox. Term Offa's Dyke.

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Definition s a massive linear earthwork, roughly followed by some of the current border between England and Wales.

Fox interpreted the Dyke as the product of a negotiated agreement between Mercia and the Welsh Kingdoms. Term "The Personality of Britain". Definition book written by Cyril fox about the topography of England with regard to its colonization.

Term Gordon R. Definition conducted the first archaeological settlement pattern study in Peru's Viru Valley- marks the beginning of landscape arcaheology.

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