Of all the isotopic dating methods in use today, the uranium-lead method is the oldest and, when done carefully, the most reliable. Unlike any other method, uranium-lead has a natural cross-check built into it that shows when nature has tampered with the evidence. Uranium comes in two common isotopes with atomic weights of and we'll call them U and U. Both are unstable and radioactive, shedding nuclear particles in a cascade that doesn't stop until they become lead Pb. The two cascades are different-U becomes Pb and U becomes Pb. What makes this fact useful is that they occur at different rates, as expressed in their half-lives the time it takes for half the atoms to decay. The U-Pb cascade has a half-life of million years and the U-Pb cascade is considerably slower, with a half-life of 4.
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William Thomson or Baron Kelvin in estimated the earth to be 98 million years old. Although Einstein was frustrated by the math which continuously seemed to indicate otherwise. Radiometric dating was invented by Ernest Rutherford in Rutherford estimated the age of the earth to be about 2. A universe that was not static. Later, Einstein finalized the Cosmological Constant that stands today and considered his assumption of a static universe to be his greatest blunder.
As we shall discover, any supposed mathematical precision regarding the age of the earth has been determined by many assumptions.
Or another way to state it is everything exists for no reason, by cosmic accidents, by luck of unimaginable odds. Many variances persist into modern day radiometric dating and one dating method renders results that often vary exponentially from one another.
Yet, many believe that radiometric dating technology serves as the end of debate regarding the age of the earth. However, as we shall illustrate, such date estimates are arbitrary and certainly ubenjamingaleschreck.comovable.
Conclusions are based on a presupposed naturalistic evolutionary history of material formations and living organisms. These assumptions form the foundation prior to any technology being turned on in a lab or any researcher collecting any samples. As we discussed, scientists have estimated the earth to be as young as about 6, years to indefinitely old. Today it is widely accepted that the earth is 4.
All this variance has emerged over a relatively short period of time in history of only about years.
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These changes are intrinsically linked to the doubt of Creation as an act of God and an acceptance of purposeless cause of naturalism. History has shown that scientists were convinced that the earth was ancient well before any radiometric dating technology was ever invented. It is highly suspect that the technology proposed to precisely calculate the age of the earth confirmed those same assumptions held all along.
The assumptions applied to the technology allowed the invention to measure the presupposed billions of years of age which had passed since the naturalistic formation of the earth. The invention of radiometric dating technology proved to be a self-fulfilling prophesy. The technology finally confirmed what scientists had assumed all along: the earth was billions of years old.
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To keep things quite simple, think of decay as something changing over a duration of time. We generally see decay being used to describe something negative. Such as too much sugar over the years causes teeth to decay.
Lead atoms created by uranium decay are trapped in the crystal and build up in concentration with time. If nothing disturbs the grain to release any of this radiogenic lead, dating it is straightforward in concept.
Or, after a week my fresh fish emits a stink of decay. Decay as it relates to atoms means a loss of material an electron particle, etc which has to do with the ratio of protons and neutrons of a radioactive element. Decay means that the original element also called the Parent, decays loses material that causes the Parent to decay into a different element called the Daughter. Decay occurs when the Parent element that is unstable, meaning radioactive, changes or decays into the stable Daughter element.
Oct 01, New evidence, however, has recently been discovered that can only be explained by the radioactive decay rates not having been constant in the past. 9 For example, the radioactive decay of uranium in tiny crystals in a New Mexico granite (Figure 5) yields a uranium-lead "age" of billion years. Uranium dating accuracy Creation yes, the radioactive isotopes. Because the fact that scientists attempt to get a few sizable flaws. Boltwood used to use today. Boltwood used for fossils of radiometric dating. It is difficult to date today. Accuracy - how accurate and find a. Carbon dating prove rocks when dating methods are unstable isotopes. Like all the radiometric dating methods mentioned earlier, Uranium-Lead share many of the same problems associated with assumptions controlled by the researchers. First, a unique problem to this dating method has been revealed in the discovery that Uranium decay rates are actually not constant at all. Turns out that decay rates vary depending on which radioactive isotope are measured from the .
Radioactive unstable Parent elements decay into Daughter elements. Radiometric dating is a technology that measures, or more accurately countshow much of an element remains in a sample and creates a ratio of Parent to Daughter elements. The Daughter element is always presumed to have resulted as a direct decay of the Parent within the same sample.
The ratio of Parent to Daughter is used to estimate the approximate age of the sample tested. The ages are based on calculations produced by assumptions including a duration of time called a half-life.
A half-life is a bit tricky to initially understand, but it is a simple concept. A half-life is the duration of time for half of the Parent element to decay into the Daughter element. Some half-lives are less than a second and others are many millions of years.
After the third interval: After the 4 th half-life interval accuracy decreases by magnitudes because the differences between the Parent levels are tiny. Carbon-Nitrogen dating is more commonly known simply as carbon dating or also called radioactive Carbon This dating method is very important because the unstable Parent is found in all organic life forms.
Therefore, this dating method is used to estimate the age of once living things. Radioactive unstable Parent element carbon is formed in the upper atmosphere when cosmic sun rays collide with ordinary Carbon which adds an unstable isotope forming Carbon Along with common Carbon, Carbon mixes into the atmosphere, dissolves in the oceans, and enters the flesh of plants through the photosynthesis process.
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Additionally, through these same mediums of the air, water, and plants Carbon enters the bodies of animals that ate the plants or other animals that ate the plants.
Carbon becomes trapped inside their flesh and it assumed to be continuously renewed and maintained at a steady level emphasis on assumed.
After the animal dies, no new carbon can be added because no replenishment of eating happens. As the years pass, the unstable radioactive element Carbon decays into the stable Daughter element Nitrogen. Like Carbon-Nitrogen dating, radioactive elements are also measured based on the decay of radioactive Parent elements into stable Daughter elements.
Some radioactive elements decay extremely fast, decaying in mere fractions of a single second.
Radiometric Dating Debunked in 3 Minutes
Other elements decay much slow, based on calculations, would take many millions of years to complete even one half-life. One ct all decay rates processes share is ubenjamingaleschreck.comedictability. Radioactivity does not occur like the clicking of the seconds on a clock- sometimes it is a bit faster or a bit slower.
This is why the half-life measurement is used. The half-life method establishes a more reliable probability that the atomic structure of the element will have decayed as anticipated. Scientifically, rocks can be measured in many ways such as density, composition, hardness, color, texture, and more. However, contrary to the many charts that fill geological and paleontological indexes and evolutionary textbooks, age cannot be directly measured in any rock. The age of rocks can be deduced based on experiments such as radiometric dating but these calculations are derived by many assumptions made by the researcher.
The vast age has simply been assumed. When completing the form submitted with the sample to be tested, prior to any examination, the laboratory asks the researcher to estimate the expected age of the sample.
However, should samples conclude ages unacceptable or outside the exceptions age presumed by the researchers, they are discarded. To illustrate, radiometric dating method for Potassium-Argon is used to estimate ages of lava flows. Liquid samples before they solidify are presumed to have zero Argon. Argon is a gas and at extremely hot temperatures of liquid lava, all Argon is forced out.
Potassium-Argon has an incredible 1. Therefore, if any Argon at all is found in the lava sample ages amass millions of years quickly. The lab conducted Potassium-Argon radiometric testing that calculated the lava sample to be approximatelyyears old. There are many such examples. Many are far worse, calculating recent lava flows as being many millions of years ancient.
Our hypothetical spa holds 1, gallons of water that is in the backyard of a home filling with water. The spa is found filling and the drain is inspected and found not to be leaking. The tub is determined to be exactly half full, containing gallons of water. The research team measures the flow of the water coming out of the hose at a precise rate of gallons per hour. Therefore, the math is quite simple.
With extreme confidence your team concludes that the spa has been filling precisely 5 hours and in another 5 hours it will be completely full. These calculations seem straight forward enough but, they are loaded with assumptions.
First, researchers assumed the starting condition of the spa. They assumed the spa tub was completely empty despite never observing it as such. This starting condition cannot be certain- it was presumed. Second, researchers assumed that the rate of the water flow had remained constant throughout time. The flow rate of the past which was not observed-it was also presumed.
Did the rate maintain a gallons per hour? Was there a kink in the hose that made the flow slower in the past? Did it run faster and slow down?
Third, had other influences that might have altered our spa tub calculation? Consider the drain, it was closed when it was measured but might it have been accidently left open during the filling earlier?
What about unexpected conditions that may have affected our calculations? Perhaps, rain fell for the first hour. Perhaps the sun caused excessive evaporation that requires a mathematical adjustment. Perhaps the hypothetical spa arguably has an exceptionally low likelihood that our assumptions would impacting our calculations to any large extent. However, what if we apply these same assumptions toward measurements presumed to take place of thousands, millions, or even billions of years? Obviously, any single wrong assumption would become fatal to our conclusions.
Obviously, the longer the duration to be measured, the greater opportunities emerge of both the unknown events and contaminating factors that impact calculations. Nature repeatedly witnesses both uniformitarian slow and steady changes and sudden violent catastrophes.
Simply put, any presumed calculation of millions or billions of years cannot be relied upon. While our measurements and technologies maybe massively precise in the present, the unobservable past remains filled with unknowns which render calculations to be mere fantasy.
From our example, we can illuminate problems associated with any dating method. The first assumption begins with the starting conditions of our sample. Just like the researchers assumed the spa was completely empty before filling, with radiometric dating researchers assume there is only Parent elements and the sample is empty of any Daughter element.
The second assumption is the rate of flow. Researchers assume that the decay rate as observed in the present has remained the same throughout all time. Essentially if the sample has remained within a closed system free of outside influences that may have impacted the decay rate. The third assumption is that from the beginning until the present when measured has continued without any contamination.
These assumptions, just as with our spa example, are uncertain and ubenjamingaleschreck.comovable. They are assumptions. Clearly, no researcher observed the initial conditions or the flow rate throughout time many millions of years. Of course, no one can confirm that there has been no subsequent contamination since the beginning. Despite the weaknesses of assumptions, radiometric dating promises to precisely date rocks, fossils, and even the earth.
As we shall discuss in a moment, there are many weaknesses specific to different dating techniques, but assumptions singlehandedly discredit all of them. The weakest points of radiometric dating are: a assumptions of starting conditions of the original concentration of atomic elements are based on estimates made by the researcher in the present; b assumptions of rate are presupposed to be at a constant decay rate based on observations made in the present.
Because this assumption is based on unknown conditions it cannot be known or accounted for by the researcher. Such unknowns might be massive gravity during planetary formation, heat from earth molten core, asteroid impacts, solar flares, or the impact of cold temperatures.
It has been demonstrated that molecular orbits cease to move when placed in absolute zero temperatures as found in space.
No scientist denies that there were many events in the past that could cause such conditions. Consider Creation The Big Bangasteroid impacts, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, flooding, solar flares, fires, etc.
The field of radiometric dating persists despite these mountains of assumptions. Each calculation assumes universal constants that are assumed, constant decay rates that are assumed, and original conditions including that of the element are assumed.
From these assumptions all data is calculated based on processes observed in the present-just like our spa tub example. To keep all the results tight, any calculation that falls outside the expectations of the researcher are deemed either wrong, contaminated, or unintelligible.
There are many different radiometric dating methods used in science to determine the age of rocks and minerals. Each radiometric Parent to Daughter has various constraints and limitations. Generally, the dating method selected by the researcher is based on the available rocks and minerals that can be tested.
There are four primary dating methods that are used to date a spectrum of materials and ages.
Uranium dating flaws
Recall the process that forms radioactive Carbon occurs when solar rays collide with ordinary Carbon in the atmosphere. Carbon dating methods rely on many additional assumptions beyond those discussed earlier. This atmospheric consistency would then result in an equal amount of Carbon in the atmosphere today as when generated in the more distant past. However, this is known not to be the case. The method relies on two separate decay chainsthe uranium series from U to Pb, with a half-life of 4.
Uranium decays to lead via a series of alpha and beta decays, in which U with daughter nuclides undergo total eight alpha and six beta decays whereas U with daughters only experience seven alpha and four beta decays. The existence of two 'parallel' uranium-lead decay routes U to Pb and U to Pb leads to multiple dating techniques within the overall U-Pb system. The term U-Pb dating normally implies the coupled use of both decay schemes in the 'concordia diagram' see below.
However, use of a single decay scheme usually U to Pb leads to the U-Pb isochron dating method, analogous to the rubidium-strontium dating method.
Finally, ages can also be determined from the U-Pb system by analysis of Pb isotope ratios alone. This is termed the lead-lead dating method.
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Clair Cameron Pattersonan American geochemist who pioneered studies of uranium-lead radiometric dating methods, used it to obtain one of the earliest estimates of the age of the Earth. Although zircon ZrSiO 4 is most commonly used, other minerals such as monazite see: monazite geochronologytitaniteand baddeleyite can also be used. These types of minerals often produce lower precision ages than igneous and metamorphic minerals traditionally used for age dating, but are more common in the geologic record.
During the alpha decay steps, the zircon crystal experiences radiation damage, associated with each alpha decay. This damage is most concentrated around the parent isotope U and Thexpelling the daughter isotope Pb from its original position in the zircon lattice. In areas with a high concentration of the parent isotope, damage to the crystal lattice is quite extensive, and will often interconnect to form a network of radiation damaged areas.
These fission tracks act as conduits deep within the crystal, providing a method of transport to facilitate the leaching of lead isotopes from the zircon crystal. Under conditions where no lead loss or gain from the outside environment has occurred, the age of the zircon can be calculated by assuming exponential decay of Uranium. That is. These are said to yield concordant ages.
Loss leakage of lead from the sample will result in a discrepancy in the ages determined by each decay scheme. This effect is referred to as discordance and is demonstrated in Figure 1. If a series of zircon samples has lost different amounts of lead, the samples generate a discordant line.
The upper intercept of the concordia and the discordia line will reflect the original age of formation, while the lower intercept will reflect the age of the event that led to open system behavior and therefore the lead loss; although there has been some disagreement regarding the meaning of the lower intercept ages.
Zircon is very chemically inert and resistant to mechanical weathering-a mixed blessing for geochronologists, as zones or even whole crystals can survive melting of their parent rock with their original uranium-lead age intact. Zircon crystals with prolonged and complex histories can thus contain zones of dramatically different ages usually, with the oldest and youngest zones forming the core and rim, respectively, of the crystaland thus are said to demonstrate inherited characteristics.
Unraveling such complications which, depending on their maximum lead-retention temperature, can also exist within other minerals generally requires in situ micro-beam analysis via, say, ion microprobe SIMS or laser ICP-MS. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Type of radiometric dating.
American Journal of Science. Bibcode : AmJS Retrieved 7 January