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When there was romantic interest, the young man was expected to act as the pursuer. Men were cautioned not to pay too much attention to a woman unless he was serious about her and also financially ready for marriage - or soon to be. Yet with little privacy, young couples lacked the opportunity to get to know each other well before confronting the question of marriage.
Poor couples generally made an effort to be as respectable as their wealthier counterparts, but the rules were more lax. Once a working-class couple decided to marry, they could socialize together with only a younger sibling as a chaperone.
Premarital sex was tolerated in such cases, because announcing an engagement was considered a verbal contract. Sabine McKellen began her career teaching English as a Second Language to adults from around the world. She has spent the past seven years in journalism, covering social issues, specifically in rural communities. Her work has appeared in community newspapers throughout southern California, and in various trade and educational magazines.
Regardless of how old we are, we never stop learning. They instead concentrated on the argument that it was not necessary to believe in God to behave in moral fashion. The proof of God's existence that said he had to exist to have a marvelously complex world was no longer satisfactory when biology demonstrated that complexity could arise through evolution.
The centrality of the family was a dominant feature for all classes. Worriers repeatedly detected threats that had to be dealt with: working wives, overpaid youths, harsh factory conditions, bad housing, poor sanitation, excessive drinking, and religious decline.
The licentiousness so characteristic of the upper class of the late 18th and early 19th centuries dissipated. The home became a refuge from the harsh world; middle-class wives sheltered their husbands from the tedium of domestic affairs. The number of children shrank, allowing much more attention to be paid to each child. Extended families were less common, as the nuclear family became both the ideal and the reality.
The emerging middle-class norm for women was separate sphereswhereby women avoid the public sphere - the domain of politics, paid work, commerce, and public speaking. Instead, they should dominate in the realm of domestic life, focused on the care of the family, the husband, the children, the household, religion, and moral behavior. They taught in Sunday schools, visited the poor and sick, distributed tracts, engaged in fundraising, supported missionaries, led Methodist class meetings, prayed with other women, and a few were allowed to preach to mixed audiences.
The long poem The Angel in the House by Coventry Patmore - exemplified the idealized Victorian woman who is angelically pure and devoted to her family and home. The poem was not a pure invention but reflected the emerging legal economic social, cultural, religious and moral values of the Victorian middle-class. Legally women had limited rights to their bodies, the family property, or their children. The recognized identities were those of daughter, wife, mother, and widow. Rapid growth and prosperity meant that fewer women had to find paid employment, and even when the husband owned a shop or small business, the wife's participation was less necessary.
Meanwhile, the home sphere grew dramatically in size; women spent the money and decided on the furniture, clothing, food, schooling, and outward appearance the family would make. Patmore's model was widely copied - by Charles Dickens, for example. This made their work highly attractive to the middle-class women who bought the novels and the serialized versions that appeared in many magazines. However, a few early feminists called for aspirations beyond the home.
By the end of the century, the "New Woman" was riding a bicycle, wearing bloomers, signing petitions, supporting worldwide mission activities, and talking about the vote.
The era saw a reform and renaissance of public schools, inspired by Thomas Arnold at Rugby. The public school became a model for gentlemen and public service. In prosethe novel rose from a position of relative neglect during the s to become the leading literary genre by the end of the era. Popular forms of entertainment varied by social class.
Michael Balfe was the most popular British grand opera composer of the period, while the most popular musical theatre was a series of fourteen comic operas by Gilbert and Sullivanalthough there was also musical burlesque and the beginning of Edwardian musical comedy in the s. Drama ranged from low comedy to Shakespeare see Henry Irving. Melodrama was a particularly widespread and influential theatrical genre.
There were, however, other forms of entertainment.
Gentlemen went to dining clubs, like the Beefsteak Club or the Savage Club. Gambling at cards in establishments popularly called casinos was wildly popular during the period: so much so that evangelical and reform movements specifically targeted such establishments in their efforts to stop gambling, drinking, and prostitution.
Brass bands and 'The Bandstand ' became popular in the Victorian era.
The bandstand was a simple construction that not only created an ornamental focal point but also served acoustic requirements whilst providing shelter from the changeable British weather. It was common to hear the sound of a brass band whilst strolling through parklands. At this time musical recording was still very much a novelty.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June until her death on 22 January The era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period, and its later half overlaps with the first part of the Belle Epoque era of Continental Europe. In terms of moral sensibilities and political reforms, this period began. Dating in the Victorian Age "The Unsuitable Suitor of " by Heather Palmer Dating in the "The rules and suggestions for courtship and romance occupy most of the space in Victorian etiquette and letter writing books. Near the end of the section there is generally one curt letter of . Victorian era, the period between about an corresponding roughly to the period of Queen Victoria's reign (-) and characterized by a class-based society, a growing number of people able to vote, a growing state and economy, and Britain's status as the most powerful empire in the world.
The Victorian era marked the golden age of the British circus. The permanent structure sustained three fires but as an institution lasted a full century, with Andrew Ducrow and William Batty managing the theatre in the middle part of the century.
William Batty would also build his 14,person arena, known commonly as Batty's Hippodrome, in Kensington Gardens, and draw crowds from the Crystal Palace Exhibition. Traveling circuses, like Pablo Fanque 's, dominated the British provinces, Scotland, and Ireland Fanque would enjoy fame again in the 20th century when John Lennon would buy an poster advertising his circus and adapt the lyrics for The Beatles song, Being for the Benefit of Mr.
Fanque also stands out as a black man who achieved great success and enjoyed great admiration among the British public only a few decades after Britain had abolished slavery. Another form of entertainment involved "spectacles" where paranormal events, such as mesmerismcommunication with the dead by way of mediumship or channelingghost conjuring and the like, were carried out to the delight of crowds and participants.
Such activities were more popular at this time than in other periods of recent Western history. Natural history became increasingly an "amateur" activity. Amateur collectors and natural history entrepreneurs played an important role in building the large natural history collections of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Middle-class Victorians used the train services to visit the seaside, helped by the Bank Holiday Act ofwhich created many fixed holidays. Large numbers traveling to quiet fishing villages such as WorthingMorecambe and Scarborough began turning them into major tourist centers, and people like Thomas Cook saw tourism and even overseas travel as viable businesses.
The Victorian era saw the introduction and development of many modern sports. The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham, England, between and The world's oldest tennis tournament, the Wimbledon championshipswas first played in London in Britain was an active competitor in all the Olympic Games starting in Historians have characterised the mid-Victorian era - as Britain's "Golden Years". Much of the prosperity was due to the increasing industrialisation, especially in textiles and machinery, as well as to the worldwide network of trade and engineering that produced profits for British merchants, and exports from [ clarification needed ] across the globe.
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There was peace abroad apart from the short Crimean War,and social peace at home. Opposition to the new order melted away, says Porter.
The Chartist movement peaked as a democratic movement among the working class in ; its leaders moved to other pursuits, such as trade unions and cooperative societies. The working class ignored foreign agitators like Karl Marx in their midst, and joined in celebrating the new prosperity.
Employers typically were paternalistic and generally recognised the trade unions. Middle-class reformers did their best to assist the working classes' aspirations to middle-class norms of "respectability".
There was a spirit of libertarianism, says Porter, as people felt they were free. Taxes were very low, and government restrictions were minimal. There were still problem areas, such as occasional riots, especially those motivated by anti-Catholicism. Society was still ruled by the aristocracy and the gentry, who controlled high government offices, both houses of Parliament, the church, and the military.
Becoming a rich businessman was not as prestigious as inheriting a title and owning a landed estate. Literature was doing well, but the fine arts languished as the Great Exhibition of showcased Britain's industrial prowess rather than its sculpture, painting or music.
The educational system was mediocre; the main universities outside Scotland were likewise mediocre. In DecemberRochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers founded what is considered the first cooperative in the world. The founding members were a group of 28, around half of which were weavers, who decided to band together to open a store owned and managed democratically by the members, selling food items they could not otherwise afford.
Ten years later, the British co-operative movement had grown to nearly 1, co-operatives. The movement also spread across the world, with the first cooperative financial institution founded in in Germany. The British Empire grew dramatically during the era. India eventually became independent, followed by all the other colonies that were established especially in Africa during the Era.
In Australianew provinces were founded with Victoria in and South Australia in The focus shifted from transportation of criminals to voluntary immigration. New Zealand became a British colony in ; in Maori chiefs seated sovereignty to Britain. In New Zealand became an autonomous colony. In Canada a constitutional crisis developed ininvolving the unification of largely British Upper Canada and largely French Lower Canada. Rebellions broke out. London sent Lord Durham to resolve the issue and his report opened the way for "responsible government" that is, self-government.
Nevertheless tensions escalated, especially with the discovery of gold. The British finally prevailed, but lost prestige at home and abroad. In Indiathe East India Company lost its trade monopoly and became simply the government of those parts of India controlled directly by Britain.
English was imposed as the medium of education. A major revolt broke out in and suppressed brutally. The East India Company was merged into a new government agency. In China Britain took the lead, along with other major powers, in obtaining special trading and legal rights in a limited number of treaty ports.
Hong Kong was ceded to Britain in David Livingstone led famous expeditions in central Africa, positioning Britain for favorable expansion of its colonial system in the Scramble for Africa during the s. There were numerous revolts in violent conflicts in the British Empire, but there were no wars with other nations, apart from the limited Crimean war of with Russia.
The major new policies included in rapid succession, the complete abolition of slavery in the West Indies and African possessions, the end of transportation of convicts to Australia, loosening restrictions on colonial trade, and introducing responsible government. The Victorians were impressed by science and progress and felt that they could improve society in the same way as they were improving technology.
Britain was the leading world centre for advanced engineering and technology. Its engineering firms were in worldwide demand for designing and constructing railways. A central development during the Victorian era was the improvement of communication.
The new railways all allowed goods, raw materials, and people to be moved about, rapidly facilitating trade and industry.
The financing of railways became an important specialty of London's financiers. Steam ships such as the SS Great Britain and SS Great Western made international travel more common but also advanced trade, so that in Britain it was not just the luxury goods of earlier times that were imported into the country but essentials and raw materials such as corn and cotton from the United States and meat and wool from Australia.
One more important innovation in communications was the Penny Blackthe first postage stamp, which standardised postage to a flat price regardless of distance sent. Even later communication methods such as electric power, telegraphand telephones, had an impact. Byhand-held cameras were available. Similar sanitation reforms, prompted by the Public Health Acts an were made in the crowded, dirty streets of the existing cities, and soap was the main product shown in the relatively new phenomenon of advertising.
A great engineering feat in the Victorian Era was the sewage system in London. It was designed by Joseph Bazalgette in Many problems were encountered but the sewers were completed. After this, Bazalgette designed the Thames Embankment which housed sewers, water pipes and the London Underground.
During the same period, London's water supply network was expanded and improved, and a gas network for lighting and heating was introduced in the s. The model town of Saltaire was founded, along with others, as a planned environment with good sanitation and many civic, educational and recreational facilities, although it lacked a pubwhich was regarded as a focus of dissent.
During the Victorian era, science grew into the discipline it is today. In addition to the increasing professionalism of university science, many Victorian gentlemen devoted their time to the study of natural history. This study of natural history was most powerfully advanced by Charles Darwin and his theory of evolution first published in his book On the Origin of Species in Although initially developed in the early years of the 19th century, gas lighting became widespread during the Victorian era in industry, homes, public buildings and the streets.
The invention of the incandescent gas mantle in the s greatly improved light output and ensured its survival as late as the s. Hundreds of gasworks were constructed in cities and towns across the country. Inincandescent electric lights were introduced to London streets, although it took many years before they were installed everywhere.
One of the great achievements of the Industrial Revolution in Britain was the introduction and advancement of railway systems, not only in the United Kingdom and the British Empire but across the world. British engineers and financiers designed, built and funded many major systems. They retained an ownership share even while turning over management to locals; that ownership was largely liquidated in - to pay for the World War.
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Railroads originated in England because industrialists had already discovered the need for inexpensive transportation to haul coal for the new steam engines, to supply parts to specialized factories, and to take products to market. The existing system of canals was inexpensive but was too slow and too limited in geography. The engineers and businessmen needed to create and finance a railway system were available; they knew how to invent, to build, and to finance a large complex system.
The first quarter of the 19th century involved numerous experiments with locomotives and rail technology.
By railways were commercially feasible, as demonstrated by George Stephenson - when he built the Stockton and Darlington. On his first run, his locomotive pulled 38 freight and passenger cars at speeds as high as 12 miles per hour. They invented and improved thousands of mechanical devices, and developed the science of civil engineering to build roadways, tunnels and bridges.
Britain had a superior financial system based in London that funded both the railways in Britain and also in many other parts of the world, including the United States, up until The canal companies, unable or unwilling to upgrade their facilities to compete with railways, used political power to try to stop them. The railways responded by purchasing about a fourth of the canal system, in part to get the right of way, and in part to buy off critics.
Once a charter was obtained, there was little government regulation, as laissez-faire and private ownership had become accepted practices. The different lines typically had exclusive territory, but given the compact size of Britain, this meant that multiple competing lines could provide service between major cities.
George Hudson - became the "railway king" of Britain. He merged various independent lines and set up a "Clearing House" in which rationalized interconnections by establishing uniform paperwork and standard methods for transferring passengers and freight between lines, and rates when one system used freight cars owned by another.
Byrates had fallen to a penny a ton mile for coal, at speeds of up to fifty miles an hour.
Britain now had had the model for the world in a well integrated, well-engineered system that allowed fast, cheap movement of freight and people, and which could be replicated in other major nations.
The railways directly or indirectly employed tens of thousands of engineers, mechanics, repairmen and technicians, as well as statisticians and financial planners. They developed new and more efficient and less expensive techniques.
Most important, they created a mindset of how technology could be used in many different forms of business. Railways had a major impact on industrialization. By lowering transportation costs, they reduced costs for all industries moving supplies and finished goods, and they increased demand for the production of all the inputs needed for the railroad system itself. Bythere were 13, locomotives which each carried 97, passengers a year, or 31, tons of freight.
India provides an example of the London-based financiers pouring money and expertise into a very well built system designed for military reasons after the Mutiny ofand with the hope that it would stimulate industry. The system was overbuilt and much too elaborate and expensive for the small amount of freight traffic it carried. However, it did capture the imagination of the Indians, who saw their railways as the symbol of an industrial modernity-but one that was not realized until a century or so later.
Medicine progressed during Queen Victoria's reign. Although nitrous oxideor laughing gas, had been proposed as an anaesthetic as far back as by Humphry Davyit wasn't until when an American dentist named William Morton started using ether on his patients that anaesthetics became common in the medical profession. Anaesthetics made painless dentistry possible. At the same time sugar consumption in the British diet increased, greatly increasing instances of tooth decay.
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This gave rise to "Waterloo Teeth", which were real human teeth set into hand-carved pieces of ivory from hippopotamus or walrus jaws. Medicine also benefited from the introduction of antiseptics by Joseph Lister in in the form of carbolic acid phenol.
The Victorian era was a time of ubenjamingaleschreck.comecedented population growth in Britain. The population rose from Two major contributary factors were fertility rates and mortality rates. Britain was the first country to undergo the demographic transition and the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions. Britain had the lead in rapid economic and population growth.
At the time, Thomas Malthus believed this lack of growth outside Britain was due to the ' Malthusian trap '. That is, the tendency of a population to expand geometrically while resources grew more slowly, reaching a crisis such as famine, war, or epidemic which would reduce the population to a sustainable size. Britain escaped the 'Malthusian trap' because the Industrial Revolution had a positive impact on living standards.
In the Victorian era, fertility rates increased in every decade untilwhen the rates started evening out. One is biological: with improving living standards, a higher proportion of women were biologically able to have children. Another possible explanation is social. In the 19th century, the marriage rate increased, and people were getting married at a very young age until the end of the century, when the average age of marriage started to increase again slowly.
The reasons why people got married younger and more frequently are uncertain. One theory is that greater prosperity allowed people to finance marriage and new households earlier than previously possible. With more births within marriage, it seems inevitable that marriage rates and birth rates would rise together. This is indeed a crude measure, as key groups and their fertility rates are not clear. It is likely to be affected mainly by changes in the age distribution of the population.
The Net Reproduction Rate was then introduced as an alternative measure: it measures the average fertility rate of women of child-bearing ages. High rates of birth also occurred because of a lack of birth control. Mainly because women lacked knowledge of birth control methods and the practice was seen as unrespectable. The mortality rates in England changed greatly through the 19th century. Environmental and health standards rose throughout the Victorian era; improvements in nutrition may also have played a role, although the importance of this is debated.
With a healthier environment, diseases were caught less easily and did not spread as much. Technology improved because the population had more money to spend on medical technology for example, techniques to prevent death in childbirth, so that more women and children survive which also led to a greater number of cures for diseases.
However, there was a cholera epidemic in London inwhich killed 14, people, and another in killing 10, Reformers rushed to complete a modern London sewerage system. Gothic Revival architecture became increasingly significant during the period, leading to the Battle of the Styles between Gothic and Classical ideals.
Charles Barry 's architecture for the new Palace of Westminsterwhich had been badly damaged in an firewas built in the medieval style of Westminster Hallthe surviving part of the building. Gothic was also supported by critic John Ruskinwho argued that it epitomised communal and inclusive social values, as opposed to Classicism, which he considered to epitomise mechanical standardisation. The middle of the 19th century saw The Great Exhibition ofthe first World's Fairwhich showcased the greatest innovations of the century.
It was condemned by Ruskin as the very model of mechanical dehumanisation in design but later came to be presented as the prototype of Modern architecture.
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The emergence of photographyshowcased at the Great Exhibition, resulted in significant changes in Victorian art with Queen Victoria being the first British monarch to be photographed.
John Everett Millais was influenced by photography notably in his portrait of Ruskin as were other Pre-Raphaelite artists. It later became associated with the Impressionistic and Social Realist techniques that would dominate the later years of the period in the work of artists such as Walter Sickert and Frank Holl.
The long-term effect of the reform movements was to tightly link the nonconformist element with the Liberal party. The dissenters gave significant support to moralistic issues, such as temperance and sabbath enforcement.
The nonconformist conscienceas it was called, was repeatedly called upon by Gladstone for support for his moralistic foreign policy. The rise of the middle class during the era had a formative effect on its character; the historian Walter E. Houghton reflects that "once the middle class attained political as well as financial eminence, their social influence became decisive. The Victorian frame of mind is largely composed of their characteristic modes of thought and feeling".
Industrialisation brought with it a rapidly growing middle class whose increase in numbers had a significant effect on the social strata itself: cultural norms, lifestyle, values and morality.
Identifiable characteristics came to define the middle-class home and lifestyle. Previously, in town and city, residential space was adjacent to or incorporated into the work site, virtually occupying the same geographical space. The difference between private life and commerce was a fluid one distinguished by an informal demarcation of function.
In the Victorian era, English family life increasingly became compartmentalised, the home a self-contained structure housing a nuclear family extended according to need and circumstance to include blood relations. The concept of "privacy" became a hallmark of the middle-class life. The English home closed up and darkened over the decade sthe cult of domesticity matched by a cult of privacy. Bourgeois existence was a world of interior space, heavily curtained off and wary of intrusion, and opened only by invitation for viewing on occasions such as parties or teas.
InThomas Barnes became general editor of The Times ; he was a political radical, a sharp critic of parliamentary hypocrisy and a champion of freedom of the press. It spoke of reform. Russell wrote immensely influential dispatches on the Crimean War of -; for the first time, the public could read about the reality of warfare. Russell wrote one dispatch that highlighted the surgeons' "inhumane barbarity" and the lack of ambulance care for wounded troops.
Shocked and outraged, the public reacted in a backlash that led to major reforms especially in the provision of nursing, led by Florence Nightingale. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in by a group of non-conformist businessmen. Its most famous editor, Charles Prestwich Scottmade - benjamingaleschreck.com into a world-famous newspaper in the s.
The Daily Telegraph in became the first penny newspaper in London.
Victorian Courtship: The Victorians romanticized love as well as tragedy. They revered courtship and love, despite their strict moral code and rules of etiquette. To gatherings, young women were chaperoned, usually by their mothers or some other married woman, to ensure nothing 'improper' occurred. The diamond ring which symbolizes. In the Victorian era, many saw marriage as an economic arrangement from which the families of both the bride and groom - though often the groom - would benefit. And typically, an event known as The Season precipitated all the upper-crust matches that would lead to these benjamingaleschreck.com: Abby Norman. Dating Victorian Era Photos Leave a comment Uncategorized. Helpful Clothing Clues. If you're hitting a brick wall when it comes to identifying family members in old photos from the Victorian era, you're not alone. Even the most seasoned family historian will run into this headscratcher from time to time as Victorian fashions.
It was funded by advertising revenue based on a large audience. Opportunities for leisure activities increased dramatically as real wages continued to grow and hours of work continued to decline.
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In urban areas the nine-hour workday became increasingly the norm; the Factory Act limited the working week to Furthermore, a system of routine annual holidays came into play, starting with white-collar workers and moving into the working-class.
By the late Victorian era the leisure industry had emerged in all cities. It provided scheduled entertainment of suitable length at convenient locales at inexpensive prices. These included sporting events, music halls, and popular theatre. By football was no longer the preserve of the social elite, as it attracted large working-class audiences.
Average attendance was inrising to 23, in Sports by generated some three percent of the total gross national product. Professional sports were the norm, although some new activities reached an upscale amateur audience, such as lawn tennis and golf. Women were now allowed in some sports, such as archery, tennis, badminton and gymnastics.
The very rapid growth in population in the 19th century in the cities included the new industrial and manufacturing cities, as well as service centres such as Edinburgh and London. The critical factor was financing, which was handled by building societies that dealt directly with large contracting firms. Kemp says this was usually of advantage to tenants.
Clean water, sanitation, and public health facilities were inadequate; the death rate was high, especially infant mortality, and tuberculosis among young adults. Cholera from polluted water and typhoid were endemic. Unlike rural areas, there were no famines such as the one which devastated Ireland in the s. Wage rates improved steadily; real wages after taking inflation into account were 65 percent higher incompared to Much of the money was saved, as the number of depositors in savings banks rose frominto 5.
These problems were magnified in London, where the population grew at record rates. Large houses were turned into flats and tenements, and as landlords failed to maintain these dwellings, slum housing developed. Kellow Chesney described the situation as follows: "Hideous slums, some of them acres wide, some no more than crannies of obscure misery, make up a substantial part of the metropolis In big, once handsome houses, thirty or more people of all ages may inhabit a single room.
These included a large expansion in workhouses or poorhouses in Scotlan although with changing populations during the era. The early Victorian era before the reforms of the s became notorious for the employment of young children in factories and mines and as chimney sweeps.
Reformers wanted the children in school: in only about 20 percent of the children in London had any schooling. By about half of the children between 5 and 15 were in school including Sunday school. The children of the poor were expected to help towards the family budget, often working long hours in dangerous jobs for low wages.
Children also worked as errand boys, crossing sweepersshoe blacks, or sold matches, flowers, and other cheap goods. Working hours were long: builders might work 64 hours a week in summer and 52 in winter, while domestic servants were theoretically on duty hours a week. Mother bides at home, she is troubled with bad breath, and is sair weak in her body from early labour. I am wrought with sister and brother, it is very sore work; cannot say how many rakes or journeys I make from pit's bottom to wall face and back, thinks about 30 or 25 on the average; the distance varies from to fathom.
I carry about 1 cwt. As early as an Factory Acts were passed to limit the working hours of children in factories and cotton mills to 12 hours per day. These acts were largely ineffective and after radical agitation, by for example the "Short Time Committees" ina Royal Commission recommended in that children aged should work a maximum of 12 hours per day, children aged a maximum of eight hours, and children under the age of nine should no longer be permitted to work.
This act, however, only applied to the textile industryand further agitation led to another act in limiting both adults and children to hour working days. Victorian morality was a surprising new reality. The changes in moral standards and actual behaviour across the British were profound. Historian Harold Perkin wrote:. Between and the English ceased to be one of the most aggressive, brutal, rowdy, outspoken, riotous, cruel and bloodthirsty nations in the world and became one of the most inhibited, polite, orderly, tender-minded, prudish and hypocritical.
Historians continue to debate the various causes of this dramatic change.
Asa Briggs emphasizes the strong reaction against the French Revolution, and the need to focus British efforts on its defeat and not be diverged by pleasurable sins. Briggs also stresses the powerful role of the evangelical movement among the Nonconformists, as well as the Evangelical faction inside the established Church of England.
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The religious and political reformers set up organizations that monitored behaviour, and pushed for government action. Among the higher social classes, there was a marked decline in gambling, horse races, and obscene theatres; there was much less heavy gambling or patronage of upscale houses of prostitution.
The highly visible debauchery characteristic of aristocratic England in the early 19th century simply disappeared. Historians agree that the middle classes not only professed high personal moral standards, but actually followed them.
Victorian era marriage customs. Step 1 - courtship. The Victorian people were very cautious about courtships. The dating would firstly begin when the couple would speak to one another. The next step was to go out for a walk and then lastly by keeping company. The upper class socialized at social events while the lowers classes socialized at. The Victorian era began with Queen Victoria's coronation in and ended with her death in Her reign over Great Britain and Ireland set a stricter moral tone for much of European and. During the Victorian Era , romantic love became viewed as the primary requirement for marriage and courting became even more formal - almost an art form among the upper benjamingaleschreck.com interested gentleman could not simply walk up to a young lady and begin a conversation. Even after being introduced, it was still some time before it was considered appropriate for a man to speak to a.
There is a debate whether the working classes followed suit. Moralists in the late 19th century such as Henry Mayhew decried the slums for their supposed high levels of cohabitation without marriage and illegitimate births. By contrast, in 21st-century Britain nearly half of all children are born outside marriage, and nine in ten newlyweds have been cohabitating.
Crime was getting exponentially worse. There were 4, arrests for criminal offenses intripling to 14, in and doubling to 31, in in England and Wales. Slowly capital punishment was replaced by transportation, first to the American colonies and then to Australia, and, especially, by long-term incarceration in newly built prisons.