Weimar , city, Thuringia Land state , eastern Germany. Weimar lies along the Ilm River, just east of Erfurt. First mentioned in documents in as Wimare, it was declared a town in and was chartered in The German National Assembly , forming the constituent national representative body of the German Republic, which was created after the revolution of , met in the city from February 6, , and the constitution of the new republic known commonly as the Weimar Republic and lasting until was drawn up there. Weimar was the capital of Thuringia from to Weimar is a railway junction, and its industrial products include machinery, precision instruments, truck parts, jewelry, pharmaceuticals, and foodstuffs.
The Duchess Anna Amalia Library holds some 1 million volumes, including a large collection devoted to Goethe and a Bible that belonged to Martin Luther ; a fire in destroyed tens of thousands of volumes, including first editions of the works of Schiller and William Shakespeare.
Between and Weimar was the seat of the Bauhaus architectural school before its move to Dessau. The city is the seat of the Bauhaus University of Weimar, whose art school was founded in Also in the city are the headquarters of the German Shakespeare Society, a college of architecture and building, and a national observatory.
Northwest of Weimar, on the 1,foot metre Ettersberg Etters Hillis the Buchenwald National Memorial, on the site of one of the largest and most infamous of the Nazi concentration camps established inin which about 43, persons died. Primarily for political prisoners, the Buchenwald camp was especially notorious for medical experimentation on living human beings. It was the first of the large concentration camps to be entered by the Allied armies, in April Article Media.
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As early as the 19th century, the curation of Weimar and its heritage started. Many archives, societies and museums were founded to present and conserve the cultural sights and goods.
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InWeimar was connected by the Thuringian Railway. In the following decades, the city saw a construction and population boom like most lateth century cities in Germany.
Nevertheless, Weimar did not become industrialised, and remained a city of clerks, artists and rentiers. During the German Revolution of the last reigning grand duke of Saxe-Weimar-EisenachWilliam Ernesthad to abdicate and went in exile to Heinrichau in Silesia.
The period in German history from to is commonly referred to as the Weimar Republicas the Republic's constitution was drafted here. Berlin as the capital was considered too dangerous for the National Assembly to use as a meeting place, because of its street rioting after the German Revolution. The calm and centrally-located Weimar had a suitable place of assembly the theatrehotels and infrastructure, so it was chosen as the capital.
Due to that fact, the city experienced another period of growth. The Bauhaus in Weimar lasted from towhen it moved to Dessauafter the newly elected right-wing Thuringian council put pressure on the School by withdrawing funding and forcing its teachers to quit.
Many buildings in Weimar today have influences from the Bauhaus period. However, only one original Bauhaus building was constructed during - the Haus am Hornnow used for exhibitions and events on Bauhaus culture. The Weimar Republic era was marked by a constant conflict between "progressive" and national socialist forces, the former represented by Harry Graf Kessler and the latter Adolf Bartels in Weimar. Afterthe right wing forces prevailed and Weimar became an early centre of Nazism. Weimar was important to the Nazis for two reasons: first, it was where the hated Weimar Republic was founded, and second, it had been a centre of German high culture during recent centuries.
Adolf Hitler visited Weimar more than forty times prior to Inthe first Nazi concentration camps were established around Weimar in Nohra the first one in Germany and Bad Sulza.
Most prisoners at this time were communists and social democrats.
After Kristallnacht inharassment of Jews became more intense, so that many of them emigrated or were arrested. The Weimar Synagogue was destroyed in During the s, the barracks in Weimar was greatly extended. One famous person serving as a soldier in Weimar was Wolfgang Borchertlater a well known poet and playwright.
As it was the capital of Thuringia, the Nazis built a new Roman-fascist-style administrative centre between the city centre and the main station.
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This Gauforumdesigned by Hermann Gieslerwas the only Nazi governmental building completed outside Berlin though there were plans for all German state capitals. Today it hosts the Thuringian State Administration. Inthe Nazis established Buchenwald concentration camp eight kilometres from Weimar city centre.
The city centre was partially damaged by US Air Force bombing in with some 1, people killed and many historic buildings destroyed. Nevertheless, most of the destroyed buildings were restored soon after the war because of their importance in German cultural history. The city ended up in the Soviet zone of occupation, so US troops were soon replaced by Soviet forces. The camp slogan remained Jedem das Seine. Inthe East German government declared Erfurt as Thuringia's new capital, and Weimar lost its influence on German contemporary culture and politics.
The state of Thuringia itself was dissolved in and replaced by three Bezirke districts in a local government reform; Weimar belonged to the Bezirk of Erfurt.
Due to its fame and importance for tourism, Weimar received more financial subsidies from the GDR government and remained in better condition than most East German cities. Tourism has become an important economic factor over the decades.
Weimar is now a popular residence of people working in Erfurt and Jenaboth less than 20 minutes away. Ina fire broke out at the Duchess Anna Amalia Library. The library contains a 13,volume collection including Goethe's masterpiece Faustin addition to the duchess's music collection.
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An authentic Lutheran Bible from was saved from the fire. Over one million volumes were housed in the library, of which forty to fifty thousand were damaged beyond repair. A number of books were shock-frozen in Leipzig to save them from rotting.
In Bauhaus buildings in Weimar (along with those in Dessau) were collectively designated a World Heritage site by UNESCO; two years later the city's classical sites (including the Duchess Anna Amalia Library and the houses of Goethe and Schiller), dating from the 18th and 19th centuries, were also included on the World Heritage list. The. Free dating site, friendship and social discovery. Meet people in Weimar online now. This Weimar Timeline charts the chronology of the Weimar Republic, dating the pre-history before the adoption of the actual Weimar benjamingaleschreck.com timeline stops when Hitler establishes the Third Reich. The timeline is color-coded: Black: Normal events of the Weimar republic and its pre-history.
The library was reopened in The municipal terrain is hilly; the height of the city centre in Ilm valley is approximately m of elevation. To the north, the terrain rises to Ettersbergthe city's backyard mountain, m in height.
The range of hills in the south of Weimar rises up to m and is part of the Ilm Saale Plate Muschelkalk formation. The eastern, central and western parts of the municipal territory are in agricultural use, whereas the Ettersberg and some southern areas are wooded. Annual precipitation is only millimeters Light snowfall occurs, mainly from December through February, but snow cover does not usually remain for long.
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The city itself is divided into 10 inner urban and 11 suburban districts. Finally, there are the Plattenbau settlements, constructed during the GDR period, Weststadt and Nordstadt as well as two industrial areas in the north and west. The 11 suburban districts are villages which became incorporated during the 20th century; however, they have mostly stayed rural to date:.
Over the centuries, Weimar remained a small town of less than 5, inhabitants. When it became the capital of Saxe-Weimar inpopulation growth was stimulated and population increased from 3, in to 6, in Around the yearWeimar had 7, inhabitants. Their number grew constantly over the years to 13, in28, in and 35, at the beginning of World War I.
During the interwar period, the new capital of Thuringia saw a population boom, which led to 65, inhabitants in Since that time, the population levels have stagnated.
A Bankrupt Germany Didn't Create the Nazis - Weimar's Golden Era - Between 2 Wars - 1928 Part 1 of 1
The years to brought a moderate growth of approximately 0. Suburbanization played only a small role in Weimar. It occurred after the reunification for a short time in the s, but most of the suburban areas were situated within the administrative city borders.
Like other eastern German cities, Weimar has a relatively small foreign population compared to the German average : circa 4. Two World Heritage Sites converge in Weimar:.
Its two central squares are the Marktplatz in the south with the town hall and the Herderplatz in the north with the main church. Despite its medieval origin, there are only a few medieval buildings, many being destroyed by frequent fires throughout the city's history.
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Most buildings in this area date back to the 17th and 18th century. Furthermore, Weimar has two old suburbs: in the north, the Jakobsvorstadt around St. James' Church medieval origin and another one in the south around Frauenplan square.
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The majority of buildings in these areas are also of 17th- and 18th-century origin. During the late 19th and early 20th century, Weimar grew in all directions. The most uptown areas are those right and left of the Park an der Ilm in the southeast, whereas the western and northern quarters are more basic and mixed with industrial areas in their outer parts. During the GDR period, two new Plattenbau settlements were developed in the west and the north of the city.
Aftersuburbanization occurred for a short time and the rural districts of Weimar saw significant growth as part of the larger city.
The city's main church is the Evangelical St. Peter and Paul on the Herderplatz known as Die Herderkirche. It was rebuilt in late Gothic style after a fire around Between an the interior underwent a Baroque remodelling by Johann Adolf Richter.
Johann Gottfried Herder was the Dean of the church between and The second old Evangelical church of Weimar is St. James on Rollplatz, rebuilt in in Baroque style. The Roman Catholic parish church of Weimar is dedicated to the Sacred Heart and was built between and in historicist forms imitating Florence Cathedral.